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Income inequality linked to export “complexity”

The mix of products that countries export is a good predictor of income distribution, study finds.

By Larry Hardesty


CAMBRIDGE, Mass. – In a series of papers over the past 10 years, MIT Professor César Hidalgo and his collaborators have argued that the complexity of a country’s exports — not just their diversity but the expertise and technological infrastructure required to produce them — is a better predictor of future economic growth than factors economists have historically focused on, such as capital and education.

Now, a new paper by Hidalgo and his colleagues, appearing in the journal World Development, argues that everything else being equal, the complexity of a country’s exports also correlates with its degree of economic equality: The more complex a country’s products, the greater equality it enjoys relative to similar-sized countries with similar-sized economies.

“When people talk about the role of policy in inequality, there is an implicit assumption that you can always reduce inequality using only redistributive policies,” says Hidalgo, the Asahi Broadcasting Corporation Associate Professor of Media Arts and Sciences at the MIT Media Lab. “What these new results are telling us is that the effectiveness of policy is limited because inequality lives within a range of values that are determined by your underlying industrial structure.

“So if you’re a country like Venezuela, no matter how much money Chavez or Maduro gives out, you’re not going to be able to reduce inequality, because, well, all the money is coming in from one industry, and the 30,000 people involved in that industry of course are going to have an advantage in the economy. While if you’re in a country like Germany or Switzerland, where the economy is very diversified, and there are many people who are generating money in many different industries, firms are going to be under much more pressure to be more inclusive and redistributive.”

Joining Hidalgo on the paper are first author Dominik Hartmann, who was a postdoc in Hidalgo’s group when the work was done and is now a research fellow at the Fraunhofer Center for International Management and Knowledge Economy in Leipzig, Germany; Cristian Jara-Figueroa and Manuel Aristarán, MIT graduate students in media arts and sciences; and Miguel Guevara, a professor of computer science at Playa Ancha University in Valparaíso, Chile, who earned his PhD at the MIT Media Lab.

Quantifying complexity

For Hidalgo and his colleagues, the complexity of a product is related to the breadth of knowledge required to produce it. The PhDs who operate a billion-dollar chip-fabrication facility are repositories of knowledge, and the facility of itself is the embodiment of knowledge. But complexity also factors in the infrastructure and institutions that facilitate the aggregation of knowledge, such as reliable transportation and communication systems, and a culture of trust that enables productive collaboration.

In the new study, rather than try to itemize and quantify all such factors — probably an impossible task — the researchers made a simplifying assumption: Complex products are rare products exported by countries with diverse export portfolios. For instance, both chromium ore and nonoptical microscopes are rare exports, but the Czech Republic, which is the second-leading exporter of nonoptical microscopes, has a more diverse export portfolio than South Africa, the leading exporter of chromium ore.

The researchers compared each country’s complexity measure to its Gini coefficient, the most widely used measure of income inequality. They also compared Gini coefficients to countries’ per-capita gross domestic products (GDPs) and to standard measures of institutional development and education.

Predictive power

According to the researchers’ analysis of economic data from 1996 to 2008, per-capita GDP predicts only 36 percent of the variation in Gini coefficients, but product complexity predicts 58 percent. Combining per-capita GDP, export complexity, education levels, and population predicts 69 percent of variation. However, whereas leaving out any of the other three factors lowers that figure to about 68 percent, leaving out complexity lowers it to 61 percent, indicating that the complexity measure captures something crucial that the other factors leave out.

Using trade data from 1963 to 2008, the researchers also showed that countries whose economic complexity increased, such as South Korea, saw reductions in income inequality, while countries whose economic complexity decreased, such as Norway, saw income inequality increase.

Source: MIT News Office

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Need for a tailor made strategy!

By Syed Adeel

Is your business failing to capture full potential of a lucrative market?

Does your “One size fits for all” strategy not working?

Have you got an organization structure which is aligned with latest trends and technologies?

Is your overall business strategy well connected with real world?

If you are a business executive, such questions would pop up in your mind almost on daily basis. Sometimes you figure out the answer and other times you find yourself in doldrums, struggling to find the right direction to channelize your resources. This is where you need the services of strategy consultants who will aid you in connecting and shaping your thoughts and vision with the real world through a game plan.

In Pakistan, the role of strategy consultants has long been neglected and as a result businesses often fail to scale up to their full potential due to absence of any clear tailor made strategy. But gradually, with businesses getting more mature and the market dynamics fast changing; executives are realizing that they need companions to help them sail through uncharted waters.

Let some of your brainy work be outsourced and go for a tailor made strategy to fit your vision and needs.

Academic and research collaboration to improve people to people contacts for peace and progress

Syed Faisal ur Rahman

Muslim world especially Middle East and surrounding regions, where we live, are facing some of the worst political turmoil of our history. We are seeing wars, terrorism, refugee crisis and resulting economic. The toughest calamities are faced by common people who have very little or no control over the policies which are resulting in the current mess. Worst thing which is happening is the exploitation of sectarianism as a tool to forward foreign policy and strategic agenda. Muslims in many parts of the world are criticizing western powers for this situation but we also need to seriously do some soul searching.

We need to see why are we in this mess?

For me one major reason is that OIC members have failed to find enough common constructive goals to bring their people together.

After the Second World War, Europe realized the importance of academic and economic cooperation for promoting peace and stability. CERN is a prime example of how formal foes can join hands for the purpose of discovery and innovation.

France and Germany have established common institutes and their universities regularly conduct joint research projects. UK and USA, despite enormous bloodshed the historical American war of independence, enjoy exemplary people to people relationships and academic collaboration is a major part of it. It is this attitude of thinking big, finding common constructive goals and strong academic collaboration, which has put them in the forefront of science and technology.

Over the last few decades, humanity has sent probes like Voyager which are challenging the limits of our solar system, countries are thinking about colonizing Mars, satellites like PLANCK and WMAP are tracking radiation from the early stages of our universe, quantum computing is now looking like a possibility and projects are being made for hyper-sonic flights. But in most of the so called Muslim world, we are stuck with centuries old and good for nothing sectarian issues.

Despite some efforts in the defense sector, OIC member countries largely lack the technology base to independently produce jets, automobiles, advanced electronics, precision instruments and many other things which are being produced by public or independent private sector companies in USA, China, Russia, Japan and Europe. Most of the things which are being indigenously produced by OIC countries rely heavily on foreign core components like engine or high precision electronics items. This is due to our lack of investment on fundamental research especially Physics.

OIC countries like Turkey, Pakistan, Malaysia, Iran, Saudi Arabia and some others have some basic infrastructure on which they can build upon to conduct research projects and joint ventures in areas like sending space probes, ground based optical and radio astronomy, particle physics, climate change and development of strong industrial technology base.  All we need is the will to start joint projects and promote knowledge sharing via exchange of researchers or joint academic and industrial research projects.

These joint projects will not only be helpful in enhancing people to people contacts and improving academic research standards but they will also contribute positively in the overall progress of humanity. It is a great loss for humanity as a whole that a civilization, which once led the efforts to develop astronomy, medicine and other key areas of science, is not making any or making very little contribution in advancing our understanding of the universe.

The situation is bad and if we look at Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Yemen or Libya then it seems we have hit the rock bottom. It is “Us” who need to find the way out of this mess as no one is going to solve our problems especially the current sectarian mess which is a result of narrow mindsets taking weak decisions. To come out of this dire state, we need broad minds with big vision and a desire of moving forward through mutual respect and understanding.


ight behaves both as a particle and as a wave. Since the days of Einstein, scientists have been trying to directly observe both of these aspects of light at the same time. Now, scientists at EPFL have succeeded in capturing the first-ever snapshot of this dual behavior.

Entering 2016 with new hope

Syed Faisal ur Rahman


Year 2015 left many good and bad memories for many of us. On one hand we saw more wars, terrorist attacks and political confrontations, and on the other hand we saw humanity raising voices for peace, sheltering refugees and joining hands to confront the climate change.

In science, we saw first ever photograph of light as both wave and particle. We also saw some serious development in machine learning, data sciences and artificial intelligence areas with some voices raising caution about the takeover of AI over humanity and issues related to privacy. The big question of energy and climate change remained a key point of  discussion in scientific and political circles. The biggest break through came near the end of the year with Paris deal during COP21.

The deal involving around 200 countries represent a true spirit of humanity to limit global warming below 2C and commitments for striving to keep temperatures at above 1.5C pre-industrial levels. This truly global commitment also served in bringing rival countries to sit together for a common cause to save humanity from self destruction. I hope the spirit will continue in other areas of common interest as well.

This spectacular view from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows the rich galaxy cluster Abell 1689. The huge concentration of mass bends light coming from more distant objects and can increase their total apparent brightness and make them visible. One such object, A1689-zD1, is located in the box — although it is still so faint that it is barely seen in this picture. New observations with ALMA and ESO’s VLT have revealed that this object is a dusty galaxy seen when the Universe was just 700 million years old. Credit: NASA; ESA; L. Bradley (Johns Hopkins University); R. Bouwens (University of California, Santa Cruz); H. Ford (Johns Hopkins University); and G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz)
This spectacular view from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows the rich galaxy cluster Abell 1689. The huge concentration of mass bends light coming from more distant objects and can increase their total apparent brightness and make them visible. One such object, A1689-zD1, is located in the box — although it is still so faint that it is barely seen in this picture.
New observations with ALMA and ESO’s VLT have revealed that this object is a dusty galaxy seen when the Universe was just 700 million years old.
NASA; ESA; L. Bradley (Johns Hopkins University); R. Bouwens (University of California, Santa Cruz); H. Ford (Johns Hopkins University); and G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz)

Space Sciences also saw some enormous advancements with New Horizon sending photographs from Pluto, SpaceX successfully landed the reusable Falcon 9 rocket back after a successful launch and we also saw the discovery of the largest regular formation in the Universe,by Prof Lajos Balazs, which is a ring of nine galaxies 7 billion light years away and 5 billion light years wide covering a third of our sky.We also learnt this year that Mars once had more water than Earth’s Arctic Ocean. NASA later confirmed the evidence that water flows on the surface of Mars. The announcement led to some interesting insight into the atmospheric studies and history of the red planet.

In the researchers' new system, a returning beam of light is mixed with a locally stored beam, and the correlation of their phase, or period of oscillation, helps remove noise caused by interactions with the environment. Illustration: Jose-Luis Olivares/MIT
In the researchers’ new system, a returning beam of light is mixed with a locally stored beam, and the correlation of their phase, or period of oscillation, helps remove noise caused by interactions with the environment.
Illustration: Jose-Luis Olivares/MIT

We also saw some encouraging advancements in neurosciences where we saw MIT’s researchers  developing a technique allowing direct stimulation of neurons, which could be an effective treatment for a variety of neurological diseases, without the need for implants or external connections. We also saw researchers reactivating neuro-plasticity in older mice, restoring their brains to a younger state and we also saw some good progress in combating Alzheimer’s diseases.

Quantum physics again stayed as a key area of scientific advancements. Quantu

ight behaves both as a particle and as a wave. Since the days of Einstein, scientists have been trying to directly observe both of these aspects of light at the same time. Now, scientists at EPFL have succeeded in capturing the first-ever snapshot of this dual behavior. Credit:EPFL
ight behaves both as a particle and as a wave. Since the days of Einstein, scientists have been trying to directly observe both of these aspects of light at the same time. Now, scientists at EPFL have succeeded in capturing the first-ever snapshot of this dual behavior.

m computing is getting more closer to become a viable alternative to current architecture. The packing of the single-photon detectors on an optical chip is a crucial step toward quantum-computational circuits. Researchers at the Australian National University (ANU)  performed experiment to prove that reality does not exist until it is measured.

There are many other areas where science and technology reached new heights and will hopefully continue to do so in the year 2016. I hope these advancements will not only help us in growing economically but also help us in becoming better human beings and a better society.






Finding new employees who support company culture a top concern for businesses expanding abroad, EIU report finds

  • New report identifies “softer” aspects of business expansions, such as sourcing new employees who support and enhance the brand’s existing culture, as a top concern
  • Other findings include the desire to open new markets and gain market share as the main drivers for corporate expansions abroad
  • A location’s level of taxation or skills shortages do not seem to be as much of a concern to companies expanding overseas as might have been expected

A new report released on December 3rd, by The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) states that bringing new people into a company’s culture and values is among the biggest challenges during international expansions. Corporate overseas expansion: Opportunities and barriers, sponsored by TMF Group, builds on a survey of 155 senior executives who have knowledge of the issues involved in their company’s expansion into foreign markets.

Among those interviewed for the report there was near-unanimous agreement that maintaining company culture while respecting local customs and cultural differences is a fundamental objective for a successful international expansion. By contrast, policymakers may have overstated the importance of a location’s level of taxation, as this seems to be far less of a concern in companies’ expansion projects than might have been expected.

The survey also finds that a desire to open new markets and gain market share are the principal drivers of corporate expansions abroad, selected by 59% and 57% of respondents respectively. This is especially the case for European countries, as sluggish growth in domestic markets has encouraged many European companies to seek stronger returns overseas. By contrast, the majority of respondents in Asia-Pacific (53%) are particularly driven by the need to find new sources of capital.

Martin Koehring, the editor of the report, said: “It’s clear from our report that once a company’s executive team has identified its scope for an overseas expansion, much of the success will rest on comprehensive planning. This includes ‘softer’ brand-authenticity elements, such as maintaining the company culture and values, that are in some regards more pressing—or perhaps more challenging to master—than ‘harder’ aspects such as currency hedging, integrating operational systems and ensuring compliance with local regulations.”

Read Corporate overseas expansion: Opportunities and barriers here

Source: EIU

Automating big-data analysis : MIT Research

System that replaces human intuition with algorithms outperforms 615 of 906 human teams.

By Larry Hardesty

Big-data analysis consists of searching for buried patterns that have some kind of predictive power. But choosing which “features” of the data to analyze usually requires some human intuition. In a database containing, say, the beginning and end dates of various sales promotions and weekly profits, the crucial data may not be the dates themselves but the spans between them, or not the total profits but the averages across those spans.

MIT researchers aim to take the human element out of big-data analysis, with a new system that not only searches for patterns but designs the feature set, too. To test the first prototype of their system, they enrolled it in three data science competitions, in which it competed against human teams to find predictive patterns in unfamiliar data sets. Of the 906 teams participating in the three competitions, the researchers’ “Data Science Machine” finished ahead of 615.

In two of the three competitions, the predictions made by the Data Science Machine were 94 percent and 96 percent as accurate as the winning submissions. In the third, the figure was a more modest 87 percent. But where the teams of humans typically labored over their prediction algorithms for months, the Data Science Machine took somewhere between two and 12 hours to produce each of its entries.

“We view the Data Science Machine as a natural complement to human intelligence,” says Max Kanter, whose MIT master’s thesis in computer science is the basis of the Data Science Machine. “There’s so much data out there to be analyzed. And right now it’s just sitting there not doing anything. So maybe we can come up with a solution that will at least get us started on it, at least get us moving.”

Between the lines

Kanter and his thesis advisor, Kalyan Veeramachaneni, a research scientist at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL), describe the Data Science Machine in a paper that Kanter will present next week at the IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics.

Veeramachaneni co-leads the Anyscale Learning for All group at CSAIL, which applies machine-learning techniques to practical problems in big-data analysis, such as determining the power-generation capacity of wind-farm sites or predicting which students are at risk fordropping out of online courses.

“What we observed from our experience solving a number of data science problems for industry is that one of the very critical steps is called feature engineering,” Veeramachaneni says. “The first thing you have to do is identify what variables to extract from the database or compose, and for that, you have to come up with a lot of ideas.”

In predicting dropout, for instance, two crucial indicators proved to be how long before a deadline a student begins working on a problem set and how much time the student spends on the course website relative to his or her classmates. MIT’s online-learning platform MITxdoesn’t record either of those statistics, but it does collect data from which they can be inferred.

Featured composition

Kanter and Veeramachaneni use a couple of tricks to manufacture candidate features for data analyses. One is to exploit structural relationships inherent in database design. Databases typically store different types of data in different tables, indicating the correlations between them using numerical identifiers. The Data Science Machine tracks these correlations, using them as a cue to feature construction.

For instance, one table might list retail items and their costs; another might list items included in individual customers’ purchases. The Data Science Machine would begin by importing costs from the first table into the second. Then, taking its cue from the association of several different items in the second table with the same purchase number, it would execute a suite of operations to generate candidate features: total cost per order, average cost per order, minimum cost per order, and so on. As numerical identifiers proliferate across tables, the Data Science Machine layers operations on top of each other, finding minima of averages, averages of sums, and so on.

It also looks for so-called categorical data, which appear to be restricted to a limited range of values, such as days of the week or brand names. It then generates further feature candidates by dividing up existing features across categories.

Once it’s produced an array of candidates, it reduces their number by identifying those whose values seem to be correlated. Then it starts testing its reduced set of features on sample data, recombining them in different ways to optimize the accuracy of the predictions they yield.

“The Data Science Machine is one of those unbelievable projects where applying cutting-edge research to solve practical problems opens an entirely new way of looking at the problem,” says Margo Seltzer, a professor of computer science at Harvard University who was not involved in the work. “I think what they’ve done is going to become the standard quickly — very quickly.”

Source: MIT News Office


Science, politics, news agenda and our priorities

By Syed Faisal ur Rahman


Recent postponement of the first Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) summit on Science and Technology and COMSTECH 15th general assembly meeting, by the government of Pakistan due to security reasons tells a lot about our national priorities.

The summit was first of its kind meeting of the heads of state and dignitaries from the Muslim world on the issue of science and technology.

Today most Muslim countries are known in other parts of the world as backward, narrow minded and violent regions. Recent wars in the Middle East, sectarian rifts and totalitarian regimes are also not presenting a great picture either. While rest of the world is sending probes towards the edge of our solar system, sending missions to Mars and exploring moons of Saturn, we are busy and failing in finding moon on the right dates of the Islamic calendar.

Any average person can figure out that we need something drastic to change this situation. This summit was exactly the kind of step we needed for a jump start. Some serious efforts were made by the COMSTECH staff under the leadership of Dr. Shaukat Hameed Khan and even the secretary general of OIC was pushing hard for the summit. According to reports, OIC secretary general personally visited more than a dozen OIC member countries to successfully convince their head of states to attend the summit.

This summit would have also provided an opportunity to bring harmony and peace in the Muslim world as many Muslim countries are at odds with each other on regional issues like in Syria, Iraq, Yemen and Afghanistan.

Last century saw enormous developments in the fields of fundamental science, which also helped countries to rapidly develop their potential in industry, medical sciences, defense, space and many other sectors. Countries which made science and technology research and education as priority areas emerged as stronger nations as compared to those who merely relied on agriculture and the abundance of natural resources. We are now living in an era where humanity is reaching to the end points of our solar system through probes like Voyager 1, sent decades ago by NASA with messages from our civilization; Quantum computing is well on its way to become a reality; Humanity is also endeavoring to colonize other planets through multi-national projects; We are also looking deepest into the space for new stars, galaxies and even to some of the earliest times after the creation of our universe through cosmic microwave background probes like Planck.

Unfortunately, in Pakistan, anti-science and anti-research attitudes are getting stronger. The lack of anti-science and anti-research attitude is not just limited to the religious zealots but the so called liberals of Pakistan do not simply put much heed to what is going around in the world of science.

If you are one of the regular followers of political arena, daily news coverage on the media and keep your ears open to hear what is going around in the country then you can easily get the idea what are our priorities as a nation. How many talk shows we saw on the main stream media over the cancellation of the summit? How many questions were raised in the parliament?

The absence or very unnoticeable presence of such issues is conspicuous and apart from one senator, Senator Sehar Kamran, who wrote a piece in a news paper, no politician even bothered to raise the relevant questions.

Forget about main stream media or politicians. If we go to social media or drawing room discussions, did you hear anyone discussing the issue in a debate when we make  fuss about issues like what kind of dress some xyz model was wearing on her court hearing in a money laundering case or which politician’s marriage is supposedly in trouble or whose hand Junaid Jamshed was holding in group photo?

We boast about our success in reducing terrorism through successful military operations and use that success to attract investors, sports teams and tourists but on the other hand we are using security concerns as an excuse to cancel an important summit on the development of science and technology. This shows that either we are confused or hypocrites or we are simply not ready for any kind of intellectual growth.

There is a need to seriously do some brain storming and soul searching about our priorities.  One thing which I have learned as a student of Astronomy is that we are insignificant as compared to the vastness of our universe, the only thing which can make us somewhat special as compared to other species on earth or a lifeless rock on Pluto is that we can challenge our thinking ability to learn, to explore and to discover. Unfortunately, in our country we are losing this special capacity day by day.

New research shows how to make effective political arguments, Stanford sociologist says

Stanford sociologist Robb Willer finds that an effective way to persuade people in politics is to reframe arguments to appeal to the moral values of those holding opposing positions.


In today’s American politics, it might seem impossible to craft effective political messages that reach across the aisle on hot-button issues like same-sex marriage, national health insurance and military spending. But, based on new research by Stanford sociologist Robb Willer, there’s a way to craft messages that could lead to politicians finding common ground.

“We found the most effective arguments are ones in which you find a new way to connect a political position to your target audience’s moral values,” Willer said.

While most people’s natural inclination is to make political arguments grounded in their own moral values, Willer said, these arguments are less persuasive than “reframed” moral arguments.

To be persuasive, reframe political arguments to appeal to the moral values of those holding the opposing political positions, said Matthew Feinberg, assistant professor of organizational behavior at the University of Toronto, who co-authored the study with Willer. Their work was published recently online in the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Such reframed moral appeals are persuasive because they increase the apparent agreement between a political position and the target audience’s moral values, according to the research, Feinberg said.

In fact, Willer pointed out, the research shows a “potential effective path for building popular support in our highly polarized political world.” Creating bipartisan success on legislative issues – whether in Congress or in state legislatures – requires such a sophisticated approach to building coalitions among groups not always in agreement with each other, he added.

Different moral values

Feinberg and Willer drew upon past research showing that American liberals and conservatives tend to endorse different moral values to different extents. For example, liberals tend to be more concerned with care and equality where conservatives are more concerned with values like group loyalty, respect for authority and purity.

They then conducted four studies testing the idea that moral arguments reframed to fit a target audience’s moral values could be persuasive on even deeply entrenched political issues. In one study, conservative participants recruited via the Internet were presented with passages that supported legalizing same-sex marriage.

Conservative participants were ultimately persuaded by a patriotism-based argument that “same-sex couples are proud and patriotic Americans … [who] contribute to the American economy and society.”

On the other hand, they were significantly less persuaded by a passage that argued for legalized same-sex marriage in terms of fairness and equality.

Feinberg and Willer found similar results for studies targeting conservatives with a pro-national health insurance message and liberals with arguments for high levels of military spending and making English the official language of the United States. In all cases, messages were significantly more persuasive when they fit the values endorsed more by the target audience.

“Morality can be a source of political division, a barrier to building bi-partisan support for policies,” Willer said. “But it can also be a bridge if you can connect your position to your audience’s deeply held moral convictions.”

Values and framing messages

“Moral reframing is not intuitive to people,” Willer said. “When asked to make moral political arguments, people tend to make the ones they believe in and not that of an opposing audience – but the research finds this type of argument unpersuasive.”

To test this, the researchers conducted two additional studies examining the moral arguments people typically make. They asked a panel of self-reported liberals to make arguments that would convince a conservative to support same-sex marriage, and a panel of conservatives to convince liberals to support English being the official language of the United States.

They found that, in both studies, most participants crafted messages with significant moral content, and most of that moral content reflected their own moral values, precisely the sort of arguments their other studies showed were ineffective.

“Our natural tendency is to make political arguments in terms of our own morality,” Feinberg said. “But the most effective arguments are based on the values of whomever you are trying to persuade.”

In all, Willer and Feinberg conducted six online studies involving 1,322 participants.

Source: Stanford News 

Mastering the art of surviving and thriving !

Life is all about juggling different balls. The more balls you are juggling, the more challenging it becomes and the test lies in not dropping a single one. Mastering the skills require real efforts to develop synchronization between mind, body and soul. More than a billion people are living in the same world but all of them having different types of balls to juggle – these balls may be work, passion, family, education or any other thing. A lot many people just go through life with no aim and leaving no impact on the world but a very few think about changing it for the betterment of others. Depending upon the way you want to live, you would be choosing your balls to juggle.

At times circumstances try to shape us and if we are not internally strong, we will get shaped the way these circumstances want us to but only with our strong will power we can not only push the circumstances to be shaped in our way but we would come out more stronger from tough situations. Life is full of crest and troughs – at times you just have to wait for the storm to go other times you may see clear sky and a clear path ahead and can easily rush through. The key to success lies in mastering the art of making judgment and hitting the nail.