Category Archives: Economy

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over Joaquin at 06:10 UTC (2:10 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1 as it was strengthening from a Category 2 to a Category 3 hurricane. Imagery showed cloud top temperatures colder than -63F/-53C (yellow).
Credits: NRL/NASA/NOAA

Satellites show Joaquin becoming a Category 4 hurricane:NASA

For details and related images CLICK HERE!

Hurricane Joaquin had become a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale by 2 p.m. EDT on October 1. At NASA, satellite imagery from NOAA’s GOES-East satellite was compiled into an animation that showed the hurricane strengthening. Earlier in the day, NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite saw powerful thunderstorms within, indicating further strengthening.

The GOES-East satellite is managed by NOAA, and at NASA’s GOES Project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, imagery from GOES-East we compiled into an animation. The infrared and visible imagery from September 29 to October 1 from showed Hurricane Joaquin become a major hurricane in the Bahamas.

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over Joaquin at 06:10 UTC (2:10 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1 as it was strengthening from a Category 2 to a Category 3 hurricane. Imagery showed cloud top temperatures colder than -63F/-53C (yellow). Credits: NRL/NASA/NOAA
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over Joaquin at 06:10 UTC (2:10 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1 as it was strengthening from a Category 2 to a Category 3 hurricane. Imagery showed cloud top temperatures colder than -63F/-53C (yellow).
Credits: NRL/NASA/NOAA

Earlier in the morning, NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over Joaquin at 06:10 UTC (2:10 a.m. EDT) as it was strengthening from a Category 2 to a Category 3 hurricane. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard captured an infrared image that showed cloud top temperatures colder than -63F/-53C, indicative of powerful storms within the hurricane. NASA research has shown that storms with cloud tops that high (and that stretch that high into the troposphere) have the capability to generate heavy rain.

On October 1, a Hurricane Warning was in effect for the Central Bahamas, Northwestern Bahamas including the Abacos, Berry Islands, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama Island, and New Providence, The Acklins, Crooked Island, and Mayaguana in the southeastern Bahamas. A Hurricane Watch was in effect for Bimini and Andros Island, and a Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the remainder of the southeastern Bahamas excluding the Turks and Caicos Islands and Andros Island.

At 2 p.m. EDT (1800 UTC), the center of Hurricane Joaquin was located near latitude 23.0 North, longitude 74.2 West. Joaquin was moving generally southwestward at about 6 mph (9 kph), and the National Hurricane Center forecast a turn toward the northwest and north on Friday, October 2. On the forecast track, the center of Joaquin will move near or over portions of the central Bahamas today and tonight and pass near or over portions of the northwestern Bahamas on Friday, October 2.

Reports from an Air Force Reserve Hurricane Hunter aircraft indicated that maximum sustained winds have increased to near 130 mph (210 kph) with higher gusts. Joaquin is now a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. Some additional strengthening is possible during the next 24 hours, with some fluctuations in intensity possible Friday night and Saturday.

Hurricane force winds extend outward up to 45 miles (75 km) from the center and tropical storm force winds extend outward up to 140 miles (220 km).

The latest minimum central pressure extrapolated from Hurricane Hunter aircraft data is 936 millibars. For effects on the Bahamas, updates to forecasts, watches and warnings, visit the National Hurricane Center website: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov.

The NHC updated forecast takes Joaquin on a more northerly track from Saturday, October 3 through Tuesday, October 6 toward Long Island, New York. Tracks and forecasts are subject to change.

Source : NASA

 

Fake diploma scandal: Why we need to seriously address it?

By Syed Faisal ur Rahman


 

Recent scandal related to a Pakistani software company Axact’s alleged involvement in selling fake degrees has shocked the whole country especially IT industry, media related circles and academia. The story published on 17th May 25, 2015; in The New York Times written by Declan Walsh was not just another exposé about a criminal activity happening somewhere.

The story basically jolted the foundations of our developing IT industry which relies heavily on outsourcing. It also raised questions about the standards of academic integrity and how as a society we give importance to it. I am not interested in passing judgments over Axact’s credibility or their involvement in the alleged scam but my focus is on highlighting the importance of solving it with utmost seriousness and transparency.

We are a small economy of the size of roughly 232 billion dollars which is lesser than many countries with less than half of our population. We are stuck in over a decade long warfare and our industry has faced the worst of it. In the past few years our Software and other IT related industries have provided some hope for our aspiring entrepreneurs to achieve their dreams and show the world that they are more than suspected terrorists.

Scandals like the diploma scandal, if not handled seriously will cast doubts over the credibility and ethics culture in our IT industry which will eventually result in the loss of international clientage confidence. Our aspiring young engineers and technologists are now making some serious contributions in mobile applications, game development, e-commerce, cloud computing and many other related areas. It will be unfair for them if our government simply tries to put the issue under the carpet using delaying tactics and leave the question mark on our industry’s credibility unaddressed.

The bigger issue in my view however is related to academic integrity and how we see it as a society. Few years ago, the issue of fake MNA/MPA degrees has damaged the reputation of our education sector all over the world. As a result, students and professionals who want to go abroad, now go through some serious scrutiny process which is really embarrassing and time consuming. It becomes more painful when we see that people from various other countries do not need to go through such painstaking process. If, in any way, comes out that our government officials are involved in any capacity in covering up the issue then whatever credibility is left of our academic sector will suffer too.

Also, we should keep our eyes open to see if the issue is being used for some other motives. The recent statement by one of our federal ministers linking Axact issue with absence of cyber crime law should also be seen with a great concern. Mixing two different issues like the proposed controversial cyber crime bill and this diploma scam will worsen the situation and can create more panic in our local IT industry.

The need is to investigate and prosecute the issue with highest professional standards and transparency so that we can prove to our-selves (not just the world) that we believe in fair play especially when it comes to the most respected field of education.

At the same time, I will urge Axact and its affiliate institution BOL that if they feel that they have been falsely targeted as a result of some conspiracy then they should file a lawsuit against The New York Times instead of using social media to clear their image.

 


The article is also available on Daily Times website with slight editing.

 

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Big Science, Funding and Commercialization. In the context of Pakistan (Survey)

We are conducting a survey on the topic of “Big Science, Funding and Commercialization”. The subject is aimed at the big science research and commercialization in the Pakistani context.

Please take part in the survey and encourage your friends to take part as well (especially working in academia, tech industry or government sector)
—————————————————-————————
Introduction:


In today’s economic realities, the question of funding big science projects is often discussed in political circles, academia, industry, media and other parts of society. On one hand we see people take interest in big questions related to our universe like it’s origin, accelerated expansion or what gives mass to the particles? But on the other hand there are many critics who question spending so much money on doing big science especially when there is so much poverty in many parts of the world. The idea is to find some solution and one possible way is to use spin-off technologies and knowledge base for commercial purposes in order to fund the big science projects without relying heavily on tax payers’ money.

Questions are available at:

https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/CDQZKR2

An article on our website discussed the related issues 

http://review.primebne.com.pk/science-economy-and-peace-a-study-focusing-pakistan/

Time to move to a post-carbon world: ANU VC Professor Ian Young responds to criticism over divestments

Australian National University’s decision to divest from some companies due to concerns mainly related to environment or carbon pollution. The decision has sparked fury from some business and political interest groups.

Responding to the allegations, Professor Ian Young wrote on ANU’s website and The Sydney Morning Herald.

According to Mr. Young :

Just over a week ago, The Australian National University decided to sell shares worth approximately $16 million in seven companies, representing just one per cent of our investment portfolio, and a fraction of the market worth of the companies involved, which has sparked an extraordinary reaction.

From one side it has been attacked by elements of industry, media and some political figures as reckless, cowardly, superficial, anti-business, poorly conceived and as destroying jobs.

On the other side, my email account has melted down with emails of support, congratulating the University on its action, and the University’s Facebook page is awash with positive comments.

The reason for this extraordinary response is because the ANU decision is seen as another domino in the divestment-movement effect, involving individuals and institutions deciding to sell their holdings in fossil fuel-producing companies.

He further said:

There has been growing sentiment from our community to not just get a good financial return from our investments but also to invest in companies which would have activities consistent with the goals of the University, and do not manifestly cause social harm. For instance, the University for many years has not, and would not now, invest in tobacco

The initial calls were to divest from all fossil fuels. This is difficult in Australia, as many of our companies are diversified. They may produce coal, oil or gas but they also do many other things. And given the world’s necessary dependence on such fuels for a long time to come, the ethical issues involved are complex. To address these issues ANU established a socially responsible investment policy.

Not only Mr. Young conveyed his view point on the criticism but also provided a broad picture about the debate:

The real debate for Australia should be about jobs in a carbon-constrained world. What will our industries be in 20 or 30 years’ time? I am confident they will not be in producing fossil fuels. Australia should not be an adopter of alternative energy, we should be a producer.

The real debate in climate should be about producing cost-effective alternative energy. Sticking our collective heads in the sand and ignoring a changing world will ensure we do destroy jobs. Universities like the ANU should be the powerhouses to produce the new technologies for such a world.

The key here is for the various parties not to go to their collective corners and throw stones, but rather for us to work together and use the window of transition to ensure Australia is a technological leader in the post-carbon world.

In an email to Alumni, The ANU VC also urged former students to take part in the debate and give their views:

Dear student

As you may be aware, last week the University Council decided to sell a relatively small number of shares in seven companies. The decision has sparked an extraordinary reaction. I’ve written about the matter in an Op Ed published today.

ANU invests for the betterment of its community – students, staff and researchers. The returns on these investments fund scholarships, staff salaries, research projects and new infrastructure. The University has a responsibility to invest wisely but also in a manner consistent with the desires of our stakeholder students, alumni and staff.

To this end, the decision to divest was made after a review commissioned as part of our Socially Responsible Investment Policy. The review was undertaken by the independent Centre for Australian Ethical Research (CAER) and provided Environmental, Social and Governance Ratings on ANU-held domestic stocks. Using an internationally recognised methodology, our investments were assessed against environmental, social and governance criteria.

The ANU community – staff, students and alumni – has been very engaged in the debate about divestment. As the national university, we have a role to play in national and global debates of this kind.

As always, I welcome your views.

Professor Ian Young AO
Vice-Chancellor

The main post is available on ANU website link: http://vcdesk.anu.edu.au/2014/10/13/time-to-move-to-a-post-carbon-world/#comment-8291

Source: ANU

Fast, cheap, and under control

New book argues that inexpensive, employee-driven business experiments can help drive innovation.

By Peter Dizikes


CAMBRIDGE, Mass. – When it comes to prescription drugs, patient “compliance” is a concern: Are people, especially the elderly, taking their medication on the proper schedule? While pharmaceutical firms focus on the research and development of drugs, knowing more about patient habits might, at a minimum, help those firms make the case for the effectiveness of their products.

Perhaps, then, some firms could benefit from a few experiments designed to help them learn more about their end-users: low-cost interventions that might involve, say, giving customers the opportunity to provide useful feedback about their habits. Indeed, small-scale business experiments designed from within might be the most valuable innovation investments most organizations can make, according to a new book on the subject.

“The purpose of an experiment is not to solve the problem, but to generate insights,” says Michael Schrage, a research fellow at the MIT Sloan School of Management, and a member of the school’s executive education teaching faculty. Moreover, Schrage claims, some businesses may discover a kind of power law of experimental knowledge: “If you design your experiments [to be] simple, frugal, and fast, you frequently can capture 80 percent of the useful insights you need for 20 percent of the time and money you’re used to investing.”

Now in his new book, “The Innovator’s Hypothesis,” published this month by the MIT Press, Schrage fleshes out the idea of “5×5” experiments as a useful tool for business innovation: having a diverse team of five employees come up with five experiments that can be tested within five weeks, for under $5,000 each.

“I’m not saying, get rid of your planning, get rid of your analytics,” Schrage says. “But when you look at your portfolio of innovation options, you should have some sort of serious investment in fast, simple, cheap, scalable, experiments.”

Airline test cases

To be sure, the notion of the 5×5 experiment bears some relation to famous business practices of the past, such as Toyota’s effort to implement “continuous improvement” from within, or more recent tech-sector initiatives to give employees a portion of work time devoted to firmwide innovation. But Schrage wants to go beyond the incrementalism of continuous improvement.

In his book, however, Schrage focuses on the specific parameters of the 5×5 idea, contending that many business practices can be tested effectively, and relatively cheaply, using this specific model. For instance, the idea of persuading airline passengers to volunteer to be bumped from their flights, for compensation, he notes, dates to at least 1968, when an economist first suggested it — but the practice wasn’t widely implemented until the late 1970s. Small-scale tests could have shown the value and feasibility of the idea much sooner than that.

But for a specific 5×5 experiment to have value, Schrage notes, it needs to yield useful information, no matter what the result is. As Schrage describes in the book, he himself thought it would prove valuable for airlines to charge more to passengers who wanted to sit together in groups of more than two — but in online-booking tests, air travelers resist paying more for seats in order to be grouped together. Still, that’s a useful and practical piece of knowledge for airlines and travel companies to have.

In that vein, getting employees to see that their own ideas might not reach fruition, Schrage believes, may be the most difficult thing about getting the 5×5 method to take hold within a firm.

“It’s hard because people want their hypothesis to be the business plan,” Schrage says. “They want to prove their hypothesis. We’re just as interested if the hypothesis doesn’t test valid.”

To make the 5×5 effort work, Schrage also recommends that employees think specifically about which executives might be most receptive to certain innovations, or the experimental method as a whole, while trying to affect change at their firms. No innovation methodology, he believes, can escape corporate politics and culture.

“The not-so-hidden agenda [of the method] is to provide a new opportunity for alignment between the visions and aspirations of [executives] and the people who actually do the work and interact with clients and customers,” Schrage says. “It creates an opportunity to engage with top management.”

The general approach, Schrage thinks, can also improve a firm from within in other ways, by further tapping the insights and talents of a firm’s employees, and perhaps even help morale in the process.

“The real value isn’t just in terms of innovation portfolios,” Schrage asserts. “It’s in helping boost the human capital, the creativity, the innovative capacity of individuals who participate,” Schrage says.

Source : MIT News Office

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Science, Economy and Peace: A study focusing Pakistan

Syed Faisal ur Rahman


 

 Abstract: A key difference between the first world and the third world is their progress in the fields of science and technology. Pakistan is mainly known as an agricultural economy but agriculture sector does not contribute much in shaping the modern global economy. We will analyze how science and technology helped in improving the lives of people but also will see its role in the economic development of countries. In the age of conflicts, war and economic rivalry, it is often hard to find common grounds for humanity to proceed for common goals. Fortunately, some big science projects have proved to be a beacon of hope for humanity in pursuing a better peaceful and prosperous future for this world.We will give an overview of some of the projects pursued by countries who are normally rivals at military and economic fronts, but for pursuing science goals they have to join hands, giving a better hope for peace and economic development. We will also see how Pakistan can learn from the experiences of other countries and regions to build a better future for it’s people.

 


 

Introduction

Last century saw enormous developments in the field of science and technology, which also helped countries to rapidly develop their potential in industry, medical sciences, defense, space and many other sectors. Countries which made science and technology research and education as priority areas emerged as stronger nations as compared to those who merely relied on agriculture and the abundance of natural resources.

We can also see that big science projects, involving one or more than one country, have served our society through spin-off technologies, human resource development, boosting up economic activity and cooperation. Also, we will study the role of some big science projects in promoting peace and stability in the world.

Global Economy and Pakistan

According to Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) world factbook public data [14], global economy has a size of 71.3 trillion dollars if we look at Gross Domestic Product (GDP) based on official exchange rate and 83.12 trillion dollars based on GDP purchasing power parity (PPP).

The contribution of different sectors based on CIA world fact book 2012 estimates, is as:

Agriculture- 5.9%

Industry -30.2%

Services- 63.9%

Pakistan which comprises of ~2.5-2.7 (2011 World Bank Data) percent of world population, only has 230.5 billion dollars GDP (official exchange rate) and 514.6 billion dollars GDP (PPP) which makes it around 0.32 % of the world economy based on GDP (official exchange rate) and 0.62% based on GDP(PPP). This shows a serious gap in income scales of some of the developed countries of the world and a relatively poor economy like Pakistan. This high population and low GDP mean less money available to individuals living in the country. GDP per capita (PPP) of the world is 12,400 dollars based on CIA world factbook 2012 estimates and for Pakistan the figure is 2,900 dollars.

Pakistan is also relatively more dependent on the agricultural sector. Pakistan’s labor composition is estimated in 2012 CIA world fact book as:

Agriculture- 20.1%

Industry- 25.5%

Services- 54.4%

If we look at the labor distribution, then according to 2007 estimates, Pakistan’s ~45% population is involved in the agricultural sector, which is more than industry (~21%) and services (~34%).

 Science, Technology and Global Economy

Below is plot of World Bank 2011 data [13] for countries with highest Gross National Income (GNI) per capita:

gnipercapita

Fig. 1: GNI per capita for 2011 based on World Bank Data

If we look at figure 1 then we can clearly see that most countries in top 20 GNI are knowledge based economies and some represent natural resource or energy based economies. In comparison with these economies, Pakistan’s GNI is 1,120 dollars based on the same criteria.

A more direct comparison can be given between GDP and science output is the table below showing top scientific and technical journal producers and their GDP rankings:

Rank(based on column 3) Country Scientific and Technical Journal Articles (2009, World Bank Data)[13] GDP Ranking ( based on 2011, World Bank Data) Human Development Index(HDI, based on 2012 UNDP Data) [11] Category
1 United States 208,601 1 Very High
2 China 74,019 2 Medium
3 Japan 49,627 3 Very High
4 United Kingdom 45,649 7 Very High
5 Germany 45,003 4 Very High
6 France 31,748 5 Very High
7 Canada 29,017 10 Very High
8 Italy 26,755 7 Very High
9 South Korea 22,271 14 Very High
10 Spain 21,543 11 Very High
11 India 19,917 8 Medium
12 Australia 18,923 12 Very High
13 Netherlands 14,866 16 Very High
14 Russia 14,016 9 High
15 Brazil 12,306 6 High
16 Sweden 9,478 20 Very High
17 Switzerland 9,469 18 Very High
18 Turkey 8,301 17 High
19 Poland 7,355 21 Very High
20 Belgium 7,218 22 Very High
46 Pakistan 1,043 45 Low

Table 1: Pakistan and the top 20 Sci-tech journal articles producing countries and their GDP rankings (based on the World Bank data). Also we have presented the Human Development Index (HDI) categories of these countries based on the 2012 United Nations Development Program’s HDI data.

Figures in table 1, clearly shows some relation between scientific output and the size of the overall economy. There are few exceptions like Saudi Arabia, which makes regularly into the top 20 economies and is not one of the top producers of scientific and technical journal articles. We can find such inconsistencies as there is more than one factor which contributes to the size of the economy like exploitation of energy resources, minerals, large size of populations and various other factors.

Also we can see that most sci-tech journal articles producing countries are in very high HDI countries with 3 in high and 2 in medium categories. We can see two medium category countries are two of the largest populations on earth i.e. China and India. HDI of a country depends on the access to health, income, access to education and living standard of the citizens of that country. This indicator provides a more realistic picture as compared to GDP for measuring quality of life as countries with large populations like China and India can have high GDP despite lower average income or can have a higher number of sci-tech publications or output despite not doing well in per person averages. In comparison to these countries, Pakistan is in the low HDI category which shows the low quality of life for the citizens of Pakistan.

Pakistan and comparison with India and China

We further narrow our comparison with countries having similar regional and economic history. For this we select India and China. India and China reside in the same region as Pakistan and got independence in the same time period of the late 40s. China has the largest population in the world and India has the second largest population having relatively high population density.

If we look at the historical comparisons after the separation of the East Pakistan from the federation, we can see we were well ahead of both China and India, in terms of GNI per capita and the economic freedom, for a good part of our history. Apart, from being relatively free market economy, Pakistan also did well in the development of techno-industry. Almost all major scientific organizations related to heavy industries, space, nuclear, agricultural and other areas developed in earlier decades of Pakistan. In later years, Pakistan was left behind in development by the two countries. One of the main reasons behind this is Pakistan’s lack of interest in the science and technology sectors and the inability to keep up with the pace of science and technology development in India and China. We can see historical GNI comparisons between Pakistan, China and India.

China adopted a focused techno-industrial development approach. According to Campbell, 2013 [3] paper, China developed its industrial base on Soviet lines till 1959 focusing on heavy industries. After that, till 1976 ideological domination of economic projects and economy didn’t progress much.  Then China adopted a more independent technology research policy with a relatively liberal economic agenda and in 2001 with further Chinese shift towards a market economy from a controlled economy, these policies started to give results as the involvement of private sector in such projects ensured the translation of technology research into commercial success.

Similarly, India focused strongly on science and technology from its early days and also started to initially focus on heavy industries on Soviet lines. Later, especially in early 1990s, with the liberalization of the economy and the policy shift towards more market economy, India started to promote small technology based industries. A good focus of India was on software industry which not only helped India in bringing more export revenues, but also helped improve corporate governance in India (Arora et al, 2002)[1]. This led to more productivity in many industries of India and with gradual shifts towards a market economy India also saw rapid economic growth.

Fig. 2: GNI comparison between Pakistan, China and India (World Bank 2013 Data)

Collaboration in Science and World Peace

Apart from economic development, science projects have also contributed in promoting peace and collaboration among many countries including many rival countries. The lead in promoting scientific collaboration for peace was taken by Europe. After the World War II, Europe learned to promote economic cooperation instead of unnecessary rivalry. This cooperation in economic areas grew further and expanded in other areas like science and technology. Launch of The European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN[4] in 1954 was a huge step in promoting scientific collaboration among European countries in post-World War II scenario. This spirit continued even in Cold War days (Gillies, 2011) [6] as the idea of exploring the nature of matter and energy proved to be bigger than the prejudices and blind nationalism.

This spirit continued further in other big sciences and we now see countries like USA, China, Russia, UK and others doing collaborations in space sciences, particle physics, astronomy, medicine and many other areas. Some of the examples in this regard are Square Kilometer Array (SKA), Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME), Search for Extra-terrestrial Intelligence (SETI), International Space Station (ISS) and other projects are forwarding such spirit.

Apart from this many countries are involved in other collaborative projects as well. These projects are always welcomed in civil society and the scientific community as a way to promote peace.

Pakistan is also involved in some of these projects like CERN and SESAME. Pakistan’s collaboration with CERN formally started in past two decades. Pakistan’s connection with CERN is even older than Pakistan’s formal entry in this collaboration. This connection was established through Pakistan’s Nobel Laureate, Dr. Abdus Salam. Still a lot is needed to be done by Pakistan to get the best out of these collaborations with CERN.

In SESAME, Pakistan played a key role by becoming a founding member. The idea is a brain child of Dr. Abdus Salam and Middle East based MESC (Middle East Scientific Cooperation) group headed by Sergio Fubini, a theoretician at CERN, who aspired for a synchrotron radiation source in the Middle East (Historical highlights, SESAME website) [10]. SESAME shares the same spirit of science for peace with CERN as it is helping to bridge the gap between historically rival nations and in improving people to people relations between countries like Pakistan, Iran, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Egypt, Turkey and others who are often involved in heated conflicts in the region. The project was shown full support by 45 Nobel Laureates in a joint declaration which also demanded friends of science and peace to support the project (Declaration, PETRA VI meeting, June 2008) [5].

Pakistan is still behind many countries of the world in space sciences despite being among the first few countries to launch a space rocket in the 1960s. Similarly, Pakistan has not played a significant role in any significant collaboration related to the promotion of astronomy. Our neighboring countries are playing key roles in projects like SKA (skatelescope.org, participating countries) [8] and are also expected to join ISS in the future (Spacenews, 2010) [9].

Big Science and Economic Development

Big science projects have not only played a crucial role in bringing peace or satisfying human curiosity to know more about the nature and origin of matter, energy and the universe, but the path to achieve such scale of science has led to many spin-off technology developments.

Development of World Wide Web (WWW) is a result of data sharing architecture designed for CERN (webfoundation.org, history of the web) [7], Wi-Fi is a result of CSIRO’s efforts to develop better techniques for radio astronomy (csiro.au, outcomes)[12], research in radio astronomy has also played a key role in developing techniques for locating cellular telephones, location for faulty transmitters (Bout, 1999)[2] and various other technologies.

The key here is to understand the importance of basic and fundamental sciences, and understanding the importance of adopting the right strategy for using the resulting science and technologies for economic and social development.

 Pakistan and Suggestions to Develop Science and Technology for Economic Development

The purpose of presenting various examples, data and figures is to show the necessity of developing a solid foundation for science and technology in Pakistan. We are a country with significant potential in minerals, energy and agricultural resources. Also, we have developed some advanced technology base in the defense sector. We also have a small but energetic Information Technology industry, which is growing well despite difficulties due to law and order situation, and electricity crisis in the country.

Below are some of the steps we can take to promote science and technology in Pakistan and then use it for developing Pakistan’s economy.

a) We need to improve basic science education in the country. The school level curriculum is way behind as compared to other parts of the world. We need to produce students who can think big and even if they do not pursue science as their career, they should be at least educated enough to appreciate the importance of fundamental research. Even if students end up pursuing management studies or end up as key decision makers in government or private sector offices then they will be better equipped to realize the importance of science and technology research in the progress of our country or to come up with business idea which will exploit scientific knowledge.

b) We need to promote research and development in the universities by encouraging industry-academia linkages by providing tax incentives for industries involved in promoting research and development in the universities of Pakistan.

c) We need to share the technology base developed in defense sector with the private sector so that it can be used for peaceful commercialization of technology.

d) We need to give tax and reward incentives to the private sector for contributing in fundamental sciences.

e) We need to promote collaboration between universities and strategic national organizations like SUPARCO and NESCOM.

f) The most important thing which is needed to be done is to give the leading role in policy making to the civilian scientists with sound academic and research background. Currently, institutions like SUPARCO, NESCOM and other institutions are under the direct or indirect control of military personnel who usually do not have enough academic and research background to make the right decisions and set the right priorities in the key areas of science and technology.

g) Another thing lacking in Pakistan is active inter-university and intra-university collaboration for science projects related to interdisciplinary sciences.

h) We also need to give priority to the science and technology collaboration in academic and fundamental research areas when planning our foreign policy. Currently, our foreign policy is security focused with no serious efforts to strengthen academic ties with other countries. Our embassies are needed to be run by people who understand how important it is to interact with the academia of the country they are serving in and how important it is to help our universities in making right relationships in foreign countries for scientific research. This will again be dependent on how good we will do in producing non-science graduates who understand the importance of science and technologies as most foreign office employees come from the arts departments, the business schools etc.

i) We finally need to start playing an active role in major areas of science and technology like particle   physics, astronomy, high performance computing, quantum computing, nano-technology and other areas where we have a potential to go ahead but lacking any serious progress due to lack of proper policy making and interest.

We also need to identify our strengths and weaknesses in various areas of technology and divide our science and technology base in:

a)      Commercial

In this category we can place technologies like information & communication, agricultural, pharmaceutical etc.

b)      Defense

Pakistan has done a significant investment over the past few decades in the development of nuclear, missile, fighter jets and other technologies. We can use these technologies for commercial purposes like producing energy or developing civil aeronautical industry.

c)       Strategic

Not all science and technology research produces immediate results but, their long term impact can be seen in other developed countries and some of them are mentioned above. In this category we can place big sciences like space, radio astronomy and high energy physics or even areas like quantum computing, geophysics etc.

d)      Fundamental or Basic

Fundamental or basic sciences help in creating the grounds for developments in other area mentioned previously. Physics is considered as the most fundamental science and in relative broader terms special sciences like chemistry and biology are also often made part of this category. In more liberal definitions, people also include mathematics, statistics and economics in this area as well. We need to improve research in this area and also we need to improve the teaching quality of these subjects in primary, secondary, higher secondary and tertiary level education systems.

This categorization will help Pakistan in better prioritizing the areas based on need and capacity.

Conclusions

We discussed the importance of science and technology in the economic development. We also presented a comparison between Pakistan and other countries, including neighboring China and India. We also discussed the role of science and technology in promoting peace and collaboration. We also discussed how big sciences can contribute to the economy through spin-off technologies. In the end, we also discussed some  suggestions for developing science and technology in Pakistan.

References

  1. Arora A. and Athreye A.,2002. The Software Industry and India’s Economic Development. Information Economics and Policy 14 (2002) 253-273.
  2. Bout P. V., April, 1999. Recent Examples of Technology Fostered by Radio Astronomy (Document).
  3.  Campbell J.R.,2013. Becoming a Techno-Industrial Power: Chinese Science and Technology Policy. Issues in Technology Innovation 23 (2013).
  4. CERN official website – http://home.web.cern.ch/
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  6. Gillies J., 2011, CERN can be model for global co-operation, http://www.publicserviceeurope.com/article/477/cern-can-be-model-for-global-co-operation
  7. History of web-Web foundation website http://www.webfoundation.org/vision/history-of-the-web/
  8. Participating Countries, SKA website- http://www.skatelescope.org/the-project/history-of-the-organisation/participating-countries-2/
  9. Seilding P.B. , Feb. 3, 2010, http://www.spacenews.com
  10. SESAME official website- www.sesame.org.jo
  11. United Nations Development Program (UNDP) HDI http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/hdi/
  12. Wireless LANs, CSIRO website- http://www.csiro.au/en/Outcomes/ICT-and-Services/People-and-businesses/wireless-LANs.aspx
  13. World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI) – http://data.worldbank.org/indicator
  14. World Fact Book, CIA-https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/‎

 

Global water scarcity will intensify the privatization of water resources

Local collectives should control the world’s shrinking water supplies rather than multinational companies, according to University of Leicester expert Dr Georgios Patsiaouras.

 


The world’s water reserves will increasingly fail to meet our needs over the coming decades, leaving a third of the global population without adequate drinking water by 2025, according to University of Leicester experts Dr Georgios Patsiaouras, Professor Michael Saren and Professor James Fitchett.

Local communities should be given control over the water in their area in order to stop private companies profiteering from shrinking global water supplies, says Dr Patsiaouras, Lecturer in Marketing and Consumption at the University of Leicester’s School of Management.

Ahead of World Water Week 2014, in a new research paper Dr Patsiaouras argues that increased competition for water from both the public and from industry will make it likely that a privatised, market-based water system will develop, controlled by private companies.

He predicts that nations will begin to sell key water sources – such as lakes, rivers and groundwater reserves – to companies. This will mean the supply of water around the world will soon resemble the market for oil and minerals.

Dr Patsiaouras said: “Increased competition between nations and institutions for access to clean water will create a global marketplace for buying, selling and trading water resources.”

“There will be an increase in phenomena such as water transfer, water banking and mega-engineering desalination plants emerging as alternative and competing means of managing water supply.”

This new water economy will only work in the favour of countries and communities that can afford to bid the highest amounts for water – while poorer and drought-stricken countries might see water supplies becoming even more scarce, Dr Patsiaouras warns.

To avoid this, he argues that control over water should be localised, with communities taking control over lakes and other water sources in their area, giving priority to public health over profit.

Dr Patsiaouras says the potential for community-based and cooperative alternatives for handling water supply needs to be closely examined.

He said: “Community-based water management offers an alternative solution to market-based and state-based failures.

“Although the majority of governments around the world have chosen hybrid water supply delivery models – where water supplies are controlled by both the state and private companies – the role and importance of culture and community in sustainable market development has been woefully under-examined. “

Transforming water into a global commodity is a dangerous move since water is essential for human survival, he adds.

“Cooperative alternatives have offered and will continue to offer viable solutions for the Global South, especially in light of the fact that conventional delivery systems have tended to favour the interests of wealthy citizens and affluent neighbourhoods,” he said.

Source: University of Leicester

Stanford graduate student Ming Gong, left, and Professor Hongjie Dai have developed a low-cost electrolytic device that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. The device is powered by an ordinary AAA battery. (Mark Shwartz / Stanford Precourt Institute for Energy)

Stanford scientists develop water splitter that runs on ordinary AAA battery

Hongjie Dai and colleagues have developed a cheap, emissions-free device that uses a 1.5-volt battery to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen gas could be used to power fuel cells in zero-emissions vehicles.

BY MARK SHWARTZ


In 2015, American consumers will finally be able to purchase fuel cell cars from Toyota and other manufacturers. Although touted as zero-emissions vehicles, most of the cars will run on hydrogen made from natural gas, a fossil fuel that contributes to global warming.

Stanford graduate student Ming Gong, left, and Professor Hongjie Dai have developed a low-cost electrolytic device that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. The device is powered by an ordinary AAA battery. (Mark Shwartz / Stanford Precourt Institute for Energy)
Stanford graduate student Ming Gong, left, and Professor Hongjie Dai have developed a low-cost electrolytic device that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. The device is powered by an ordinary AAA battery. (Mark Shwartz / Stanford Precourt Institute for Energy)

Now scientists at Stanford University have developed a low-cost, emissions-free device that uses an ordinary AAA battery to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis.  The battery sends an electric current through two electrodes that split liquid water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. Unlike other water splitters that use precious-metal catalysts, the electrodes in the Stanford device are made of inexpensive and abundant nickel and iron.

“Using nickel and iron, which are cheap materials, we were able to make the electrocatalysts active enough to split water at room temperature with a single 1.5-volt battery,” said Hongjie Dai, a professor of chemistry at Stanford. “This is the first time anyone has used non-precious metal catalysts to split water at a voltage that low. It’s quite remarkable, because normally you need expensive metals, like platinum or iridium, to achieve that voltage.”

In addition to producing hydrogen, the novel water splitter could be used to make chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide, an important industrial chemical, according to Dai. He and his colleagues describe the new device in a study published in the Aug. 22 issue of the journal Nature Communications.

The promise of hydrogen

Automakers have long considered the hydrogen fuel cell a promising alternative to the gasoline engine.  Fuel cell technology is essentially water splitting in reverse. A fuel cell combines stored hydrogen gas with oxygen from the air to produce electricity, which powers the car. The only byproduct is water – unlike gasoline combustion, which emits carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas.

Earlier this year, Hyundai began leasing fuel cell vehicles in Southern California. Toyota and Honda will begin selling fuel cell cars in 2015. Most of these vehicles will run on fuel manufactured at large industrial plants that produce hydrogen by combining very hot steam and natural gas, an energy-intensive process that releases carbon dioxide as a byproduct.

Splitting water to make hydrogen requires no fossil fuels and emits no greenhouse gases. But scientists have yet to develop an affordable, active water splitter with catalysts capable of working at industrial scales.

“It’s been a constant pursuit for decades to make low-cost electrocatalysts with high activity and long durability,” Dai said. “When we found out that a nickel-based catalyst is as effective as platinum, it came as a complete surprise.”

Saving energy and money

The discovery was made by Stanford graduate student Ming Gong, co-lead author of the study. “Ming discovered a nickel-metal/nickel-oxide structure that turns out to be more active than pure nickel metal or pure nickel oxide alone,” Dai said.  “This novel structure favors hydrogen electrocatalysis, but we still don’t fully understand the science behind it.”

The nickel/nickel-oxide catalyst significantly lowers the voltage required to split water, which could eventually save hydrogen producers billions of dollars in electricity costs, according to Gong. His next goal is to improve the durability of the device.

“The electrodes are fairly stable, but they do slowly decay over time,” he said. “The current device would probably run for days, but weeks or months would be preferable. That goal is achievable based on my most recent results”

The researchers also plan to develop a water splitter than runs on electricity produced by solar energy.

“Hydrogen is an ideal fuel for powering vehicles, buildings and storing renewable energy on the grid,” said Dai. “We’re very glad that we were able to make a catalyst that’s very active and low cost. This shows that through nanoscale engineering of materials we can really make a difference in how we make fuels and consume energy.”

Other authors of the study are Wu Zhou, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (co-lead author); Mingyun Guan, Meng-Chang Lin, Bo Zhang, Di-Yan Wang and Jiang Yang, Stanford; Mon-Che Tsai and Bing-Joe Wang, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology; Jiang Zhou and Yongfeng Hu, Canadian Light Source Inc.; and Stephen J. Pennycook, University of Tennessee.

Principal funding was provided by the Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) and the Precourt Institute for Energy at Stanford and by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Mark Shwartz writes about energy technology at the Precourt Institute for Energy at Stanford University.

In-house or Outsource? A case in favor of developing long term partnerships.

By Syed Faisal ur Rahman


Often audit or management consultancy firms and related service oriented businesses face issues of managing huge client work load for a certain time of the year like financial year end or time for appraisal and hiring.

This creates a tricky situation for companies with limited budget. In this situation, normally you either need to go for hiring more people to deal with the work load or burden your current work force to the limit. Hiring people for short term is challenging as not many well qualified people will agree to work as short term employees and in case of hiring new permanent people to cater short term demand is a costly process. The situation is even more challenging in developed markets where hiring costs are relatively higher than developing countries.

A much more cost effective and efficient solution is to make right outsourcing partners in same region or in other regions. There are BPO firms in developing markets which are capable of providing quality services related to IT, data entry, recruitment and even provide services in data analysis and market research. In-house development of products in a developed market is a big decision in terms of financial and managerial commitment involving several costs and risks.

However, for small tech firms with limited risks and costs, developing products on small scales is often just a decision to commit for a particular set of technologies in developing some particular tools. The drawbacks for them are their lack of exposure to corporate sector, their capacity to convert their products for larger scales and their limited market presence. Long term service based and business process outsourcing partnerships can solve problems of high costs for big business services firms in developed markets and lack of market exposure problem for smaller tech firms.

I have worked in both developed and developing markets with roles involving management, product development, data analysis and research, and in my view many companies in developing and developed markets don’t achieve their full potential only because of their lack of readiness for cooperation and conservative management structure.

Major hurdles are trust and lack of understanding about capabilities of potential partners. The solution to this problem is to take smaller steps and gradually move towards bigger products and services. At the same times managers from both sides need to develop their understanding about the capacity, talent pool and management culture of their partners.

In my humble view, we can achieve a lot more than we usually do if we just try and understand the capabilities of our potential partners and actively look for good long term partnerships based on trust and mutual respect.

Our connection to content

Using neuroscience tools, Innerscope Research explores the connections between consumers and media.

By Rob Matheson


It’s often said that humans are wired to connect: The neural wiring that helps us read the emotions and actions of other people may be a foundation for human empathy.

But for the past eight years, MIT Media Lab spinout Innerscope Research has been using neuroscience technologies that gauge subconscious emotions by monitoring brain and body activity to show just how powerfully we also connect to media and marketing communications.

“We are wired to connect, but that connection system is not very discriminating. So while we connect with each other in powerful ways, we also connect with characters on screens and in books, and, we found, we also connect with brands, products, and services,” says Innerscope’s chief science officer, Carl Marci, a social neuroscientist and former Media Lab researcher.

With this core philosophy, Innerscope — co-founded at MIT by Marci and Brian Levine MBA ’05 — aims to offer market research that’s more advanced than traditional methods, such as surveys and focus groups, to help content-makers shape authentic relationships with their target consumers.

“There’s so much out there, it’s hard to make something people will notice or connect to,” Levine says. “In a way, we aim to be the good matchmaker between content and people.”

So far, it’s drawn some attention. The company has conducted hundreds of studies and more than 100,000 content evaluations with its host of Fortune 500 clients, which include Campbell’s Soup, Yahoo, and Fox Television, among others.

And Innerscope’s studies are beginning to provide valuable insights into the way consumers connect with media and advertising. Take, for instance, its recent project to measure audience engagement with television ads that aired during the Super Bowl.

Innerscope first used biometric sensors to capture fluctuations in heart rate, skin conductance, breathing, and motion among 80 participants who watched select ads and sorted them into “winning” and “losing” commercials (in terms of emotional responses). Then their collaborators at Temple University’s Center for Neural Decision Making used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scans to further measure engagement.

Ads that performed well elicited increased neural activity in the amygdala (which drives emotions), superior temporal gyrus (sensory processing), hippocampus (memory formation), and lateral prefrontal cortex (behavioral control).

“But what was really interesting was the high levels of activity in the area known as the precuneus — involved in feelings of self-consciousness — where it is believed that we keep our identity. The really powerful ads generated a heightened sense of personal identification,” Marci says.

Using neuroscience to understand marketing communications and, ultimately, consumers’ purchasing decisions is still at a very early stage, Marci admits — but the Super Bowl study and others like it represent real progress. “We’re right at the cusp of coherent, neuroscience-informed measures of how ad engagement works,” he says.

Capturing “biometric synchrony”

Innerscope’s arsenal consists of 10 tools: Electroencephalography and fMRI technologies measure brain waves and structures. Biometric tools — such as wristbands and attachable sensors — track heart rate, skin conductance, motion, and respiration, which reflect emotional processing. And then there’s eye-tracking, voice-analysis, and facial-coding software, as well as other tests to complement these measures.

Such technologies were used for market research long before the rise of Innerscope. But, starting at MIT, Marci and Levine began developing novel algorithms, informed by neuroscience, that find trends among audiences pointing to exact moments when an audience is engaged together — in other words, in “biometric synchrony.”

Traditional algorithms for such market research would average the responses of entire audiences, Levine explains. “What you get is an overall level of arousal — basically, did they love or hate the content?” he says. “But how is that emotion going to be useful? That’s where the hole was.”

Innerscope’s algorithms tease out real-time detail from individual reactions — comprising anywhere from 500 million to 1 billion data points — to locate instances when groups’ responses (such as surprise, excitement, or disappointment) collectively match.

As an example, Levine references an early test conducted using an episode of the television show “Lost,” where a group of strangers are stranded on a tropical island.

Levine and Marci attached biometric sensors to six separate groups of five participants. At the long-anticipated moment when the show’s “monster” is finally revealed, nearly everyone held their breath for about 10 to 15 seconds.

“What our algorithms are looking for is this group response. The more similar the group response, the more likely the stimuli is creating that response,” Levine explains. “That allows us to understand if people are paying attention and if they’re going on a journey together.”

Getting on the map

Before MIT, Marci was a neuroscientist studying empathy, using biometric sensors and other means to explore how empathy between patient and doctor can improve patient health.

“I was lugging around boxes of equipment, with wires coming out and videotaping patients and doctors. Then someone said, ‘Hey, why don’t you just go to the MIT Media Lab,’” Marci says. “And I realized it had the resources I needed.”

At the Media Lab, Marci met behavioral analytics expert and collaborator Alexander “Sandy” Pentland, the Toshiba Professor of Media Arts and Sciences, who helped him set up Bluetooth sensors around Massachusetts General Hospital to track emotions and empathy between doctors and patients with depression.

During this time, Levine, a former Web developer, had enrolled at MIT, splitting his time between the MIT Sloan School of Management and the Media Lab. “I wanted to merge an idea to understand customers better with being able to prototype anything,” he says.

After meeting Marci through a digital anthropology class, Levine proposed that they use this emotion-tracking technology to measure the connections of audiences to media. Using prototype sensor vests equipped with heart-rate monitors, stretch receptors, accelerometers, and skin-conductivity sensors, they trialed the technology with students around the Media Lab.

All the while, Levine pieced together Innerscope’s business plan in his classes at MIT Sloan, with help from other students and professors. “The business-strategy classes were phenomenal for that,” Levine says. “Right after finishing MIT, I had a complete and detailed business plan in my hands.”

Innerscope launched in 2006. But a 2008 study really accelerated the company’s growth. “NBC Universal had a big concern at the time: DVR,” Marci says. “Were people who were watching the prerecorded program still remembering the ads, even though they were clearly skipping them?”

Innerscope compared facial cues and biometrics from people who fast-forwarded ads against those who didn’t. The results were unexpected: While fast-forwarding, people stared at the screen blankly, but their eyes actually caught relevant brands, characters, and text. Because they didn’t want to miss their show, while fast-forwarding, they also had a heightened sense of engagement, signaled by leaning forward and staring fixedly.

“What we concluded was that people don’t skip ads,” Marci says. “They’re processing them in a different way, but they’re still processing those ads. That was one of those insights you couldn’t get from a survey. That put us on the map.”

Today, Innerscope is looking to expand. One project is bringing kiosks to malls and movie theaters, where the company recruits passersby for fast and cost-effective results. (Wristbands monitor emotional response, while cameras capture facial cues and eye motion.) The company is also aiming to try applications in mobile devices, wearables, and at-home sensors.

“We’re rewiring a generation of Americans in novel ways and moving toward a world of ubiquitous sensing,” Marci says. “We’ll need data science and algorithms and experts that can make sense of all that data.”

 

Source : MIT News Office