Category Archives: Politics

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Income inequality linked to export “complexity”

The mix of products that countries export is a good predictor of income distribution, study finds.

By Larry Hardesty


 

CAMBRIDGE, Mass. – In a series of papers over the past 10 years, MIT Professor César Hidalgo and his collaborators have argued that the complexity of a country’s exports — not just their diversity but the expertise and technological infrastructure required to produce them — is a better predictor of future economic growth than factors economists have historically focused on, such as capital and education.

Now, a new paper by Hidalgo and his colleagues, appearing in the journal World Development, argues that everything else being equal, the complexity of a country’s exports also correlates with its degree of economic equality: The more complex a country’s products, the greater equality it enjoys relative to similar-sized countries with similar-sized economies.

“When people talk about the role of policy in inequality, there is an implicit assumption that you can always reduce inequality using only redistributive policies,” says Hidalgo, the Asahi Broadcasting Corporation Associate Professor of Media Arts and Sciences at the MIT Media Lab. “What these new results are telling us is that the effectiveness of policy is limited because inequality lives within a range of values that are determined by your underlying industrial structure.

“So if you’re a country like Venezuela, no matter how much money Chavez or Maduro gives out, you’re not going to be able to reduce inequality, because, well, all the money is coming in from one industry, and the 30,000 people involved in that industry of course are going to have an advantage in the economy. While if you’re in a country like Germany or Switzerland, where the economy is very diversified, and there are many people who are generating money in many different industries, firms are going to be under much more pressure to be more inclusive and redistributive.”

Joining Hidalgo on the paper are first author Dominik Hartmann, who was a postdoc in Hidalgo’s group when the work was done and is now a research fellow at the Fraunhofer Center for International Management and Knowledge Economy in Leipzig, Germany; Cristian Jara-Figueroa and Manuel Aristarán, MIT graduate students in media arts and sciences; and Miguel Guevara, a professor of computer science at Playa Ancha University in Valparaíso, Chile, who earned his PhD at the MIT Media Lab.

Quantifying complexity

For Hidalgo and his colleagues, the complexity of a product is related to the breadth of knowledge required to produce it. The PhDs who operate a billion-dollar chip-fabrication facility are repositories of knowledge, and the facility of itself is the embodiment of knowledge. But complexity also factors in the infrastructure and institutions that facilitate the aggregation of knowledge, such as reliable transportation and communication systems, and a culture of trust that enables productive collaboration.

In the new study, rather than try to itemize and quantify all such factors — probably an impossible task — the researchers made a simplifying assumption: Complex products are rare products exported by countries with diverse export portfolios. For instance, both chromium ore and nonoptical microscopes are rare exports, but the Czech Republic, which is the second-leading exporter of nonoptical microscopes, has a more diverse export portfolio than South Africa, the leading exporter of chromium ore.

The researchers compared each country’s complexity measure to its Gini coefficient, the most widely used measure of income inequality. They also compared Gini coefficients to countries’ per-capita gross domestic products (GDPs) and to standard measures of institutional development and education.

Predictive power

According to the researchers’ analysis of economic data from 1996 to 2008, per-capita GDP predicts only 36 percent of the variation in Gini coefficients, but product complexity predicts 58 percent. Combining per-capita GDP, export complexity, education levels, and population predicts 69 percent of variation. However, whereas leaving out any of the other three factors lowers that figure to about 68 percent, leaving out complexity lowers it to 61 percent, indicating that the complexity measure captures something crucial that the other factors leave out.

Using trade data from 1963 to 2008, the researchers also showed that countries whose economic complexity increased, such as South Korea, saw reductions in income inequality, while countries whose economic complexity decreased, such as Norway, saw income inequality increase.

Source: MIT News Office

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Academic and research collaboration to improve people to people contacts for peace and progress

Syed Faisal ur Rahman

Muslim world especially Middle East and surrounding regions, where we live, are facing some of the worst political turmoil of our history. We are seeing wars, terrorism, refugee crisis and resulting economic. The toughest calamities are faced by common people who have very little or no control over the policies which are resulting in the current mess. Worst thing which is happening is the exploitation of sectarianism as a tool to forward foreign policy and strategic agenda. Muslims in many parts of the world are criticizing western powers for this situation but we also need to seriously do some soul searching.

We need to see why are we in this mess?

For me one major reason is that OIC members have failed to find enough common constructive goals to bring their people together.

After the Second World War, Europe realized the importance of academic and economic cooperation for promoting peace and stability. CERN is a prime example of how formal foes can join hands for the purpose of discovery and innovation.

France and Germany have established common institutes and their universities regularly conduct joint research projects. UK and USA, despite enormous bloodshed the historical American war of independence, enjoy exemplary people to people relationships and academic collaboration is a major part of it. It is this attitude of thinking big, finding common constructive goals and strong academic collaboration, which has put them in the forefront of science and technology.

Over the last few decades, humanity has sent probes like Voyager which are challenging the limits of our solar system, countries are thinking about colonizing Mars, satellites like PLANCK and WMAP are tracking radiation from the early stages of our universe, quantum computing is now looking like a possibility and projects are being made for hyper-sonic flights. But in most of the so called Muslim world, we are stuck with centuries old and good for nothing sectarian issues.

Despite some efforts in the defense sector, OIC member countries largely lack the technology base to independently produce jets, automobiles, advanced electronics, precision instruments and many other things which are being produced by public or independent private sector companies in USA, China, Russia, Japan and Europe. Most of the things which are being indigenously produced by OIC countries rely heavily on foreign core components like engine or high precision electronics items. This is due to our lack of investment on fundamental research especially Physics.

OIC countries like Turkey, Pakistan, Malaysia, Iran, Saudi Arabia and some others have some basic infrastructure on which they can build upon to conduct research projects and joint ventures in areas like sending space probes, ground based optical and radio astronomy, particle physics, climate change and development of strong industrial technology base.  All we need is the will to start joint projects and promote knowledge sharing via exchange of researchers or joint academic and industrial research projects.

These joint projects will not only be helpful in enhancing people to people contacts and improving academic research standards but they will also contribute positively in the overall progress of humanity. It is a great loss for humanity as a whole that a civilization, which once led the efforts to develop astronomy, medicine and other key areas of science, is not making any or making very little contribution in advancing our understanding of the universe.

The situation is bad and if we look at Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Yemen or Libya then it seems we have hit the rock bottom. It is “Us” who need to find the way out of this mess as no one is going to solve our problems especially the current sectarian mess which is a result of narrow mindsets taking weak decisions. To come out of this dire state, we need broad minds with big vision and a desire of moving forward through mutual respect and understanding.

 

ight behaves both as a particle and as a wave. Since the days of Einstein, scientists have been trying to directly observe both of these aspects of light at the same time. Now, scientists at EPFL have succeeded in capturing the first-ever snapshot of this dual behavior.
Credit:EPFL

Entering 2016 with new hope

Syed Faisal ur Rahman


 

Year 2015 left many good and bad memories for many of us. On one hand we saw more wars, terrorist attacks and political confrontations, and on the other hand we saw humanity raising voices for peace, sheltering refugees and joining hands to confront the climate change.

In science, we saw first ever photograph of light as both wave and particle. We also saw some serious development in machine learning, data sciences and artificial intelligence areas with some voices raising caution about the takeover of AI over humanity and issues related to privacy. The big question of energy and climate change remained a key point of  discussion in scientific and political circles. The biggest break through came near the end of the year with Paris deal during COP21.

The deal involving around 200 countries represent a true spirit of humanity to limit global warming below 2C and commitments for striving to keep temperatures at above 1.5C pre-industrial levels. This truly global commitment also served in bringing rival countries to sit together for a common cause to save humanity from self destruction. I hope the spirit will continue in other areas of common interest as well.

This spectacular view from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows the rich galaxy cluster Abell 1689. The huge concentration of mass bends light coming from more distant objects and can increase their total apparent brightness and make them visible. One such object, A1689-zD1, is located in the box — although it is still so faint that it is barely seen in this picture. New observations with ALMA and ESO’s VLT have revealed that this object is a dusty galaxy seen when the Universe was just 700 million years old. Credit: NASA; ESA; L. Bradley (Johns Hopkins University); R. Bouwens (University of California, Santa Cruz); H. Ford (Johns Hopkins University); and G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz)
This spectacular view from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows the rich galaxy cluster Abell 1689. The huge concentration of mass bends light coming from more distant objects and can increase their total apparent brightness and make them visible. One such object, A1689-zD1, is located in the box — although it is still so faint that it is barely seen in this picture.
New observations with ALMA and ESO’s VLT have revealed that this object is a dusty galaxy seen when the Universe was just 700 million years old.
Credit:
NASA; ESA; L. Bradley (Johns Hopkins University); R. Bouwens (University of California, Santa Cruz); H. Ford (Johns Hopkins University); and G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz)

Space Sciences also saw some enormous advancements with New Horizon sending photographs from Pluto, SpaceX successfully landed the reusable Falcon 9 rocket back after a successful launch and we also saw the discovery of the largest regular formation in the Universe,by Prof Lajos Balazs, which is a ring of nine galaxies 7 billion light years away and 5 billion light years wide covering a third of our sky.We also learnt this year that Mars once had more water than Earth’s Arctic Ocean. NASA later confirmed the evidence that water flows on the surface of Mars. The announcement led to some interesting insight into the atmospheric studies and history of the red planet.

In the researchers' new system, a returning beam of light is mixed with a locally stored beam, and the correlation of their phase, or period of oscillation, helps remove noise caused by interactions with the environment. Illustration: Jose-Luis Olivares/MIT
In the researchers’ new system, a returning beam of light is mixed with a locally stored beam, and the correlation of their phase, or period of oscillation, helps remove noise caused by interactions with the environment.
Illustration: Jose-Luis Olivares/MIT

We also saw some encouraging advancements in neurosciences where we saw MIT’s researchers  developing a technique allowing direct stimulation of neurons, which could be an effective treatment for a variety of neurological diseases, without the need for implants or external connections. We also saw researchers reactivating neuro-plasticity in older mice, restoring their brains to a younger state and we also saw some good progress in combating Alzheimer’s diseases.

Quantum physics again stayed as a key area of scientific advancements. Quantu

ight behaves both as a particle and as a wave. Since the days of Einstein, scientists have been trying to directly observe both of these aspects of light at the same time. Now, scientists at EPFL have succeeded in capturing the first-ever snapshot of this dual behavior. Credit:EPFL
ight behaves both as a particle and as a wave. Since the days of Einstein, scientists have been trying to directly observe both of these aspects of light at the same time. Now, scientists at EPFL have succeeded in capturing the first-ever snapshot of this dual behavior.
Credit:EPFL

m computing is getting more closer to become a viable alternative to current architecture. The packing of the single-photon detectors on an optical chip is a crucial step toward quantum-computational circuits. Researchers at the Australian National University (ANU)  performed experiment to prove that reality does not exist until it is measured.

There are many other areas where science and technology reached new heights and will hopefully continue to do so in the year 2016. I hope these advancements will not only help us in growing economically but also help us in becoming better human beings and a better society.

 

 

 

 

 

Massive earthquake hits Pakistan: At least 209 dead, scores injured

KARACHI: At least 209 people lost their lives and hundreds others sustained injuries in structures’ collapse and landslides caused by a powerful 7.5 magnitude earthquake that jolted northern parts of Pakistan on Monday.

The enormity of the quake can be gauged from the fact that the tremors were felt alls across South Asia.

Majority of deaths were reported from Shangla while the death toll is feared to rise even further in view of the massiveness of this natural calamity.

The powerful quake caused a large number of walls, houses and other structures to cave in while many instances of land-sliding were also reported from some parts of the affected areas.

The earthquake was also felt in several parts of Punjab including Lahore where thousands of people had to rush outside of their houses, shops, offices and other structures for safety. They said ‘never before an earthquake had made us feel this much panic’.

Tremors were also felt in Islamabad, Sargodha, Kashmir and several other parts of the country.

According to Commissioner Malakand, 137 people died in Swat-Malakand division while 835 suffered injuries. He said as many as 813 houses collapsed in Malakand.

Chief Minister Gilgit-Baltistan said the intenstity of today’s earthquake seemd much greater compared to that of 2005.

The US Geological Survey put the epicentre near Jurm in northeast Afghanistan, 250 kilometres (160 miles) from the capital Kabul and at a depth of 213.5 kilometres.

The Met Office in Pakistan said the magnitude was 8.1 on the Richter scale.

The epicentre is just a few hundred kilometres from the site of a 7.6 magnitude quake that struck in October 2005, killing more than 75,000 people and displacing some 3.5 million more.

The earthquake was said to be one of the most powerful ever recorded in Pakistan’s history.

Quake in Afghanistan and India

Thousands of frightened people rushed into the streets across Afghanistan and India as the quake rocked a swathe of the subcontinent. Shockwaves were felt in areas as far away as New Delhi in India and Kabul in Afghanistan.

Hundreds of people raced from buildings onto the streets in different cities while the quake was also felt in the Kashmir region.

Source: The News 

Science, politics, news agenda and our priorities

By Syed Faisal ur Rahman


 

Recent postponement of the first Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) summit on Science and Technology and COMSTECH 15th general assembly meeting, by the government of Pakistan due to security reasons tells a lot about our national priorities.

The summit was first of its kind meeting of the heads of state and dignitaries from the Muslim world on the issue of science and technology.

Today most Muslim countries are known in other parts of the world as backward, narrow minded and violent regions. Recent wars in the Middle East, sectarian rifts and totalitarian regimes are also not presenting a great picture either. While rest of the world is sending probes towards the edge of our solar system, sending missions to Mars and exploring moons of Saturn, we are busy and failing in finding moon on the right dates of the Islamic calendar.

Any average person can figure out that we need something drastic to change this situation. This summit was exactly the kind of step we needed for a jump start. Some serious efforts were made by the COMSTECH staff under the leadership of Dr. Shaukat Hameed Khan and even the secretary general of OIC was pushing hard for the summit. According to reports, OIC secretary general personally visited more than a dozen OIC member countries to successfully convince their head of states to attend the summit.

This summit would have also provided an opportunity to bring harmony and peace in the Muslim world as many Muslim countries are at odds with each other on regional issues like in Syria, Iraq, Yemen and Afghanistan.

Last century saw enormous developments in the fields of fundamental science, which also helped countries to rapidly develop their potential in industry, medical sciences, defense, space and many other sectors. Countries which made science and technology research and education as priority areas emerged as stronger nations as compared to those who merely relied on agriculture and the abundance of natural resources. We are now living in an era where humanity is reaching to the end points of our solar system through probes like Voyager 1, sent decades ago by NASA with messages from our civilization; Quantum computing is well on its way to become a reality; Humanity is also endeavoring to colonize other planets through multi-national projects; We are also looking deepest into the space for new stars, galaxies and even to some of the earliest times after the creation of our universe through cosmic microwave background probes like Planck.

Unfortunately, in Pakistan, anti-science and anti-research attitudes are getting stronger. The lack of anti-science and anti-research attitude is not just limited to the religious zealots but the so called liberals of Pakistan do not simply put much heed to what is going around in the world of science.

If you are one of the regular followers of political arena, daily news coverage on the media and keep your ears open to hear what is going around in the country then you can easily get the idea what are our priorities as a nation. How many talk shows we saw on the main stream media over the cancellation of the summit? How many questions were raised in the parliament?

The absence or very unnoticeable presence of such issues is conspicuous and apart from one senator, Senator Sehar Kamran, who wrote a piece in a news paper, no politician even bothered to raise the relevant questions.

Forget about main stream media or politicians. If we go to social media or drawing room discussions, did you hear anyone discussing the issue in a debate when we make  fuss about issues like what kind of dress some xyz model was wearing on her court hearing in a money laundering case or which politician’s marriage is supposedly in trouble or whose hand Junaid Jamshed was holding in group photo?

We boast about our success in reducing terrorism through successful military operations and use that success to attract investors, sports teams and tourists but on the other hand we are using security concerns as an excuse to cancel an important summit on the development of science and technology. This shows that either we are confused or hypocrites or we are simply not ready for any kind of intellectual growth.

There is a need to seriously do some brain storming and soul searching about our priorities.  One thing which I have learned as a student of Astronomy is that we are insignificant as compared to the vastness of our universe, the only thing which can make us somewhat special as compared to other species on earth or a lifeless rock on Pluto is that we can challenge our thinking ability to learn, to explore and to discover. Unfortunately, in our country we are losing this special capacity day by day.

New research shows how to make effective political arguments, Stanford sociologist says

Stanford sociologist Robb Willer finds that an effective way to persuade people in politics is to reframe arguments to appeal to the moral values of those holding opposing positions.

BY CLIFTON B. PARKER


In today’s American politics, it might seem impossible to craft effective political messages that reach across the aisle on hot-button issues like same-sex marriage, national health insurance and military spending. But, based on new research by Stanford sociologist Robb Willer, there’s a way to craft messages that could lead to politicians finding common ground.

“We found the most effective arguments are ones in which you find a new way to connect a political position to your target audience’s moral values,” Willer said.

While most people’s natural inclination is to make political arguments grounded in their own moral values, Willer said, these arguments are less persuasive than “reframed” moral arguments.

To be persuasive, reframe political arguments to appeal to the moral values of those holding the opposing political positions, said Matthew Feinberg, assistant professor of organizational behavior at the University of Toronto, who co-authored the study with Willer. Their work was published recently online in the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Such reframed moral appeals are persuasive because they increase the apparent agreement between a political position and the target audience’s moral values, according to the research, Feinberg said.

In fact, Willer pointed out, the research shows a “potential effective path for building popular support in our highly polarized political world.” Creating bipartisan success on legislative issues – whether in Congress or in state legislatures – requires such a sophisticated approach to building coalitions among groups not always in agreement with each other, he added.

Different moral values

Feinberg and Willer drew upon past research showing that American liberals and conservatives tend to endorse different moral values to different extents. For example, liberals tend to be more concerned with care and equality where conservatives are more concerned with values like group loyalty, respect for authority and purity.

They then conducted four studies testing the idea that moral arguments reframed to fit a target audience’s moral values could be persuasive on even deeply entrenched political issues. In one study, conservative participants recruited via the Internet were presented with passages that supported legalizing same-sex marriage.

Conservative participants were ultimately persuaded by a patriotism-based argument that “same-sex couples are proud and patriotic Americans … [who] contribute to the American economy and society.”

On the other hand, they were significantly less persuaded by a passage that argued for legalized same-sex marriage in terms of fairness and equality.

Feinberg and Willer found similar results for studies targeting conservatives with a pro-national health insurance message and liberals with arguments for high levels of military spending and making English the official language of the United States. In all cases, messages were significantly more persuasive when they fit the values endorsed more by the target audience.

“Morality can be a source of political division, a barrier to building bi-partisan support for policies,” Willer said. “But it can also be a bridge if you can connect your position to your audience’s deeply held moral convictions.”

Values and framing messages

“Moral reframing is not intuitive to people,” Willer said. “When asked to make moral political arguments, people tend to make the ones they believe in and not that of an opposing audience – but the research finds this type of argument unpersuasive.”

To test this, the researchers conducted two additional studies examining the moral arguments people typically make. They asked a panel of self-reported liberals to make arguments that would convince a conservative to support same-sex marriage, and a panel of conservatives to convince liberals to support English being the official language of the United States.

They found that, in both studies, most participants crafted messages with significant moral content, and most of that moral content reflected their own moral values, precisely the sort of arguments their other studies showed were ineffective.

“Our natural tendency is to make political arguments in terms of our own morality,” Feinberg said. “But the most effective arguments are based on the values of whomever you are trying to persuade.”

In all, Willer and Feinberg conducted six online studies involving 1,322 participants.

Source: Stanford News 

Fake diploma scandal: Why we need to seriously address it?

By Syed Faisal ur Rahman


 

Recent scandal related to a Pakistani software company Axact’s alleged involvement in selling fake degrees has shocked the whole country especially IT industry, media related circles and academia. The story published on 17th May 25, 2015; in The New York Times written by Declan Walsh was not just another exposé about a criminal activity happening somewhere.

The story basically jolted the foundations of our developing IT industry which relies heavily on outsourcing. It also raised questions about the standards of academic integrity and how as a society we give importance to it. I am not interested in passing judgments over Axact’s credibility or their involvement in the alleged scam but my focus is on highlighting the importance of solving it with utmost seriousness and transparency.

We are a small economy of the size of roughly 232 billion dollars which is lesser than many countries with less than half of our population. We are stuck in over a decade long warfare and our industry has faced the worst of it. In the past few years our Software and other IT related industries have provided some hope for our aspiring entrepreneurs to achieve their dreams and show the world that they are more than suspected terrorists.

Scandals like the diploma scandal, if not handled seriously will cast doubts over the credibility and ethics culture in our IT industry which will eventually result in the loss of international clientage confidence. Our aspiring young engineers and technologists are now making some serious contributions in mobile applications, game development, e-commerce, cloud computing and many other related areas. It will be unfair for them if our government simply tries to put the issue under the carpet using delaying tactics and leave the question mark on our industry’s credibility unaddressed.

The bigger issue in my view however is related to academic integrity and how we see it as a society. Few years ago, the issue of fake MNA/MPA degrees has damaged the reputation of our education sector all over the world. As a result, students and professionals who want to go abroad, now go through some serious scrutiny process which is really embarrassing and time consuming. It becomes more painful when we see that people from various other countries do not need to go through such painstaking process. If, in any way, comes out that our government officials are involved in any capacity in covering up the issue then whatever credibility is left of our academic sector will suffer too.

Also, we should keep our eyes open to see if the issue is being used for some other motives. The recent statement by one of our federal ministers linking Axact issue with absence of cyber crime law should also be seen with a great concern. Mixing two different issues like the proposed controversial cyber crime bill and this diploma scam will worsen the situation and can create more panic in our local IT industry.

The need is to investigate and prosecute the issue with highest professional standards and transparency so that we can prove to our-selves (not just the world) that we believe in fair play especially when it comes to the most respected field of education.

At the same time, I will urge Axact and its affiliate institution BOL that if they feel that they have been falsely targeted as a result of some conspiracy then they should file a lawsuit against The New York Times instead of using social media to clear their image.

 


The article is also available on Daily Times website with slight editing.

 

nil_28

Tropical Cyclone – 04A (NILOFAR) in Arabian Sea:MET Pakistan Advisory

Just when the Southern Pakistani province of Sindh and especially the coastal city of Karachi is facing some serious political crisis due to some rift between the two ruling parties of Sindh (PPP and MQM), the nature is busy in doing some serious stuff in the neighboring Arabian Sea.

Meteorological Department of Pakistan has issued an advisory to fishermen of Sindh and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan to avoid going in the sea due to NILOFAR storm.

Very Severe Tropical Cyclone (Nilofar) in Arabian Sea is now located at Lat. 16.0°N and Long. 61.6°E, about 1120 km in southwest of Karachi and 1010 Km south of Gawadar. The Cyclone is likely to move northward in next 24 hours with a speed of 05 Km/hour. The TC would re-curve northeastwards (towards adjoining coastal areas of Lower Sindh and Indian Gujrat) on Wednesday. At present the estimated central pressure of Cyclone is 990 hpa and the average sustained wind speed around is 90-100 gusting up to 110 Knots.

Under the influence of this Cyclone, widespread rain/thundershowers with isolated heavy/very heavy falls accompanied by strong gusty winds are expected in Lower Sindh including Karachi and Coastal Areas of Balochistan during Wednesday (night) to Friday.

The sea conditions along Pakistan coast have become rough and likely to become very rough from tomorrow. The fishermen of Sindh and Balochistan are advised not to venture in open sea from Wednesday to Friday.

Note: Latest Satellite Image of 28th Oct 2014 at 1700 PST and predicted track are as follows:

Images released by MET Pakistan office on 28th October 2014 showing the NILOFAR storm near Pakistani and Indian coastal areas.
Images released by MET Pakistan office on 28th October 2014
showing the NILOFAR storm near Pakistani and Indian coastal areas.

nil_28

Earlier 27th October 2014 images released by MET Pakistan showing the path of NILOFAR.image001

 

 

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Big Science, Funding and Commercialization. In the context of Pakistan (Survey)

We are conducting a survey on the topic of “Big Science, Funding and Commercialization”. The subject is aimed at the big science research and commercialization in the Pakistani context.

Please take part in the survey and encourage your friends to take part as well (especially working in academia, tech industry or government sector)
—————————————————-————————
Introduction:


In today’s economic realities, the question of funding big science projects is often discussed in political circles, academia, industry, media and other parts of society. On one hand we see people take interest in big questions related to our universe like it’s origin, accelerated expansion or what gives mass to the particles? But on the other hand there are many critics who question spending so much money on doing big science especially when there is so much poverty in many parts of the world. The idea is to find some solution and one possible way is to use spin-off technologies and knowledge base for commercial purposes in order to fund the big science projects without relying heavily on tax payers’ money.

Questions are available at:

https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/CDQZKR2

An article on our website discussed the related issues 

http://review.primebne.com.pk/science-economy-and-peace-a-study-focusing-pakistan/