Tag Archives: 3d

The complete electronic sensor, which weighs only 1.8 grams, is imbedded in the cube, and a 3D antenna is positioned around it. Photo credit:  Muhammad Fahad Faroouqi

KAUST research pioneers smart sensors for better and safer living

Atif Shamim and Christian Claudel, KAUST Assistant Professors of Electrical Engineering, work together on creating wireless sensor networks for “smart cities.” It is technology Prof. Shamim describes as “game changing…It will change the way we do many things in our lives, moving us towards smarter living,” he said.

In the “smart cities” of the future, electronic devices and objects will be “smart,” with objects containing sensors that communicate with each other, fixed network nodes and central servers. These sensors are connected through the Internet of things (IOT), which enables them to share information. Intelligent systems at the central servers are then used to analyze and process the data from the sensors.

The complete electronic sensor, which weighs only 1.8 grams, is imbedded in the cube, and a 3D antenna is positioned around it. Photo credit:  Muhammad Fahad Faroouqi
The complete electronic sensor, which weighs only 1.8 grams, is imbedded in the cube, and a 3D antenna is positioned around it. Photo credit: Muhammad Fahad Faroouqi

“The critical component for these processes is low-cost wireless sensing modules,” explained Prof. Shamim. “Fixed sensor nodes are useful, but for these you need a lot of infrastructure, such as towers and assemblies. Our idea is that you would have some fixed sensors, but you would disperse many small, mobile sensors that communicate wirelessly to the fixed sensors, which then communicate all the received information to a central station for analysis.”

COLLABORATING FOR SMART PROGRESS

The use of small, mobile sensors reduces the cost of the infrastructure tremendously, noted Prof. Shamim, and also enables information to be gathered from remote locations where it is difficult or impossible to mount fixed sensors, such as in forests or deserts.

Together, the research groups of Prof. Shamim and Prof. Claudel combined their respective talents and expertise to make progress in using wireless sensors for flood monitoring. This issue is of high importance to Saudi Arabia and cities such as Jeddah, which saw a 2009 catastrophic flood claim the lives of hundreds and cause considerable property damage.

“Classical sensing solutions, such as fixed wireless sensor networks or satellite imagery, are too expensive or too inaccurate to detect floods – and in particular flash floods – well,” noted Prof. Claudel. “Instead, we tested the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with mobile, floatable, 3D printed microsensors and sensor delivery systems to sense and monitor flash flooding events.”

This new system of mobile, floatable sensing, called Lagrangian sensing, “is very promising for large scale sensing, or on-demand sensing, as it requires minimal infrastructure,” the researchers stated. Using this method, UAVs drop the small, disposable wireless sensors over an area to be monitored. The sensors float, so they are carried away by the water flow of the flood. As they move along in the water, they send signals to the UAVs. These signals map the extent of the flood, and this information is transmitted to a central, fixed station for processing. It can then be used to warn the public and other authorities about the extent of the flood.

“Prof. Claudel carries out the systems level design and implementation for the research project, and my group develops the actual physical sensors,” said Prof. Shamim. “In that way, I believe we are a very good fit for collaboration.”

Their collaboration produced a paper recently published in IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagation, entitled “An Inkjet-Printed Buoyant 3-D Lagrangian Sensor for Real-Time Flood Monitoring” (DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2309957). KAUST has applied for patent protection for this and other related technologies.

DEVELOPING LOW-COST SOLUTIONS

One of the challenges Profs. Claudel and Shamim and their teams faced in the research work was designing the sensors. “We wanted to make them low-cost so they are basically disposable,” explained Prof. Shamim. “We use inkjet printers to print electronics on paper and plastics, but in this case we used paper, as it is lightweight, 1/10th the cost of plastic, and is very suitable for inkjet printing. In addition, it is biodegradable and comes from a renewable resource.”

The researchers produced a small paper cube with a size of 13 mm x 13 mm x 13 mm. The complete electronic sensor, which weighs only 1.8 grams, is imbedded in the cube, and a 3D antenna is positioned around it, enabling the cube to give a signal in any direction it is moving (or floating).

“Because we were working on a flood monitoring application, we had to optimize the sensor to work in water as well as in air,” Prof. Shamim noted. “We were skeptical about its performance in water, so we sealed it with a special glue. We then produced a cube that is very small, lightweight, floats in water, and is electrically sealed. It works very well in water and radiates up to 50 meters in all directions. The performance was better than we expected.”

The technology has many other possible applications: “You could integrate sensors for ammonia, sulfur, carbon monoxide, humidity, or temperature into the cube,” said Prof. Shamim. “This would allow for detection of poisonous gases and other environmental conditions, which would be especially helpful in industrial settings and in remote locations, such as during forest fire events.”

Profs. Shamim and Claudel want to integrate their low-cost, printable, and disposable microsensor technology into the day-to-day lives of everyday people. Not only would the technology enable greater safety for individuals during catastrophic events such as floods, but it could also assist in locating cars in busy parking lots, tracking expired foods in supermarkets, and in creating smart houses, where household appliances and electronic lock systems “talk” to each other to make sure they are in proper working order.

“I believe this technology will change the way people live, shop, and monitor things,” said Prof. Shamim. “We will have better living, from our homes to our offices to our industries – and that is a benefit for all.”

Sourse: KAUST

Engineers just completed hot-fire testing with two 3-D printed rocket injectors. Certain features of the rocket components were designed to increase rocket engine performance. The injector mixed liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen together, which combusted at temperatures over 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit, producing more than 20,000 pounds of thrust.
Image Credit: NASA photo/David Olive

Sparks Fly as NASA Pushes the Limits of 3-D Printing Technology

NASA has successfully tested the most complex rocket engine parts ever designed by the agency and printed with additive manufacturing, or 3-D printing, on a test stand at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

Engineers just completed hot-fire testing with two 3-D printed rocket injectors. Certain features of the rocket components were designed to increase rocket engine performance. The injector mixed liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen together, which combusted at temperatures over 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit, producing more than 20,000 pounds of thrust. Image Credit: NASA photo/David Olive
Engineers just completed hot-fire testing with two 3-D printed rocket injectors. Certain features of the rocket components were designed to increase rocket engine performance. The injector mixed liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen together, which combusted at temperatures over 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit, producing more than 20,000 pounds of thrust.
Image Credit: NASA photo/David Olive

NASA engineers pushed the limits of technology by designing a rocket engine injector –a highly complex part that sends propellant into the engine — with design features that took advantage of 3-D printing. To make the parts, the design was entered into the 3-D printer’s computer. The printer then built each part by layering metal powder and fusing it together with a laser, a process known as selective laser melting.

The additive manufacturing process allowed rocket designers to create an injector with 40 individual spray elements, all printed as a single component rather than manufactured individually. The part was similar in size to injectors that power small rocket engines and similar in design to injectors for large engines, such as the RS-25 engine that will power NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, the heavy-lift, exploration class rocket under development to take humans beyond Earth orbit and to Mars.

“We wanted to go a step beyond just testing an injector and demonstrate how 3-D printing could revolutionize rocket designs for increased system performance,” said Chris Singer, director of Marshall’s Engineering Directorate. “The parts performed exceptionally well during the tests.”

Using traditional manufacturing methods, 163 individual parts would be made and then assembled. But with 3-D printing technology, only two parts were required, saving time and money and allowing engineers to build parts that enhance rocket engine performance and are less prone to failure.

Two rocket injectors were tested for five seconds each, producing 20,000 pounds of thrust. Designers created complex geometric flow patterns that allowed oxygen and hydrogen to swirl together before combusting at 1,400 pounds per square inch and temperatures up to 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit. NASA engineers used this opportunity to work with two separate companies — Solid Concepts in Valencia, California, and Directed Manufacturing in Austin, Texas. Each company printed one injector.

“One of our goals is to collaborate with a variety of companies and establish standards for this new manufacturing process,” explained Marshall propulsion engineer Jason Turpin. “We are working with industry to learn how to take advantage of additive manufacturing in every stage of space hardware construction from design to operations in space. We are applying everything we learn about making rocket engine components to the Space Launch System and other space hardware.”

Additive manufacturing not only helped engineers build and test a rocket injector with a unique design, but it also enabled them to test faster and smarter. Using Marshall’s in-house capability to design and produce small 3-D printed parts quickly, the propulsion and materials laboratories can work together to apply quick modifications to the test stand or the rocket component.

 

https://www.youtube.com/embed/nyveRd36FR8?enablejsapi=1&rel=0

[Video:

3-D Printed Rocket Injector Roars to Life: The most complex 3-D printed rocket injector ever built by NASA roars to life on the test stand at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama]

“Having an in-house additive manufacturing capability allows us to look at test data, modify parts or the test stand based on the data, implement changes quickly and get back to testing,” said Nicholas Case, a propulsion engineer leading the testing. “This speeds up the whole design, development and testing process and allows us to try innovative designs with less risk and cost to projects.”

Marshall engineers have tested increasingly complex injectors, rocket nozzles and other components with the goal of reducing the manufacturing complexity and the time and cost of building and assembling future engines. Additive manufacturing is a key technology for enhancing rocket designs and enabling missions into deep space.

 

Bioengineers create functional 3-D brain-like tissue

Tissue model could change the way scientists study the brain in vitro-NIH study

Bioengineers have created three-dimensional brain-like tissue that functions like and has structural features similar to tissue in the rat brain and that can be kept alive in the lab for more than two months.

As a first demonstration of its potential, researchers used the brain-like tissue to study chemical and electrical changes that occur immediately following traumatic brain injury and, in a separate experiment, changes that occur in response to a drug. The tissue could provide a superior model for studying normal brain function as well as injury and disease, and could assist in the development of new treatments for brain dysfunction.

Confocal microscope image of neurons (greenish yellow) attached to silk-based scaffold (blue). The neurons formed functional networks throughout the scaffold pores (dark areas). Image courtesy of Tufts University.
Confocal microscope image of neurons (greenish yellow) attached to silk-based scaffold (blue). The neurons formed functional networks throughout the scaffold pores (dark areas). Image courtesy of Tufts University.

The brain-like tissue was developed at the Tissue Engineering Resource Center at Tufts University, Boston, which is funded by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) to establish innovative biomaterials and tissue engineering models.  David Kaplan, Ph.D., Stern Family Professor of Engineering at Tufts University is director of the center and led the research efforts to develop the tissue.

Diagram of scaffold donut showing grey-white matter compartmentalization. Rat neurons attached to the scaffold (donut ring) and also sent axons (labeled with green fluorescence) through the collagen gel-filled center.
Diagram of scaffold donut showing grey-white matter compartmentalization. Rat neurons attached to the scaffold (donut ring) and also sent axons (labeled with green fluorescence) through the collagen gel-filled center.

Currently, scientists grow neurons in petri dishes to study their behavior in a controllable environment. Yet neurons grown in two dimensions are unable to replicate the complex structural organization of brain tissue, which consists of segregated regions of grey and white matter. In the brain, grey matter is comprised primarily of neuron cell bodies, while white matter is made up of bundles of axons, which are the projections neurons send out to connect with one another. Because brain injuries and diseases often affect these areas differently, models are needed that exhibit grey and white matter compartmentalization.

Recently, tissue engineers have attempted to grow neurons in 3D gel environments, where they can freely establish connections in all directions. Yet these gel-based tissue models don’t live long and fail to yield robust, tissue-level function. This is because the extracellular environment is a complex matrix in which local signals establish different neighborhoods that encourage distinct cell growth and/or development and function.  Simply providing the space for neurons to grow in three dimensions is not sufficient.

Now, in the Aug. 11th early online edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a group of bioengineers report that they have successfully created functional 3D brain-like tissue that exhibits grey-white matter compartmentalization and can survive in the lab for more than two months.

“This work is an exceptional feat,” said Rosemarie Hunziker, Ph.D.

Image of silk-based scaffold taken with a scanning electron microscope reveals its porous, sponge-like composition. Image courtesy of Tufts University.
Image of silk-based scaffold taken with a scanning electron microscope reveals its porous, sponge-like composition. Image courtesy of Tufts University.

, program director of Tissue Engineering at NIBIB. “It combines a deep understand of brain physiology with a large and growing suite of bioengineering tools to create an environment that is both necessary and sufficient to mimic brain function.”

The key to generating the brain-like tissue was the creation of a novel composite structure that consisted of two biomaterials with different physical properties: a spongy scaffold made out of silk protein and a softer, collagen-based gel. The scaffold served as a structure onto which neurons could anchor themselves, and the gel encouraged axons to grow through it.

To achieve grey-white matter compartmentalization, the researchers cut the spongy scaffold into a donut shape and populated it with rat neurons. They then filled the middle of the donut with the collagen-based gel, which subsequently permeated the scaffold. In just a few days, the neurons formed functional networks around the pores of the scaffold, and sent longer axon projections through the center gel to connect with neurons on the opposite side of the donut. The result was a distinct white matter region (containing mostly cellular projections, the axons) formed in the center of the donut that was separate from the surrounding grey matter (where the cell bodies were concentrated).

Over a period of several weeks, the researchers conducted experiments to determine the health and function of the neurons growing in their 3D brain-like tissue and to compare them with neurons grown in a collagen gel-only environment or in a 2D dish.

The researchers found that the neurons in the 3D brain-like tissues had higher expression of genes involved in neuron growth and function. In addition, the neurons grown in the 3D brain-like tissue maintained stable metabolic activity for up to five weeks, while the health of neurons grown in the gel-only environment began to deteriorate within 24 hours. In regard to function, neurons in the 3D brain-like tissue exhibited electrical activity and responsiveness that mimic signals seen in the intact brain, including a typical electrophysiological response pattern to a neurotoxin.

Because the 3D brain-like tissue displays physical properties similar to rodent brain tissue, the researchers sought to determine whether they could use it to study traumatic brain injury. To simulate a traumatic brain injury, a weight was dropped onto the brain-like tissue from varying heights. The researchers then recorded changes in the neurons’ electrical and chemical activity, which proved similar to what is ordinarily observed in animal studies of traumatic brain injury.

Kaplan says the ability to study traumatic injury in a tissue model offers advantages over animal studies, in which measurements are delayed while the brain is being dissected and prepared for experiments.

“With the system we have, you can essentially track the tissue response to traumatic brain injury in real time,” said Kaplan. “Most importantly, you can also start to track repair and what happens over longer periods of time.”

Kaplan emphasized the importance of the brain-like tissue’s longevity for studying other brain disorders. “The fact that we can maintain this tissue for months in the lab means we can start to look at neurological diseases in ways that you can’t otherwise because you need long timeframes to study some of the key brain diseases,” he said.

Hunziker added, “Good models enable solid hypotheses that can be thoroughly tested. The hope is that use of this model could lead to an acceleration of therapies for brain dysfunction as well as offer a better way to study normal brain physiology.”

Kaplan and his team are looking into how they can make their tissue model more brain-like.  In this recent report, the researchers demonstrated that they can modify their donut scaffold so that it consists of six concentric rings, each able to be populated with different types of neurons. Such an arrangement would mimic the six layers of the human brain cortex, in which different types of neurons exist.

As part of the funding agreement for the Tissue Engineering Resource Center, NIBIB requires that new technologies generated at the center be shared with the greater biomedical research community.

“We look forward to building collaborations with other labs that want to build on this tissue model,” said Kaplan.

This work was supported by NIH’s National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering under award #EB002520

NIBIB’s mission is to improve health by leading the development and accelerating the application of biomedical technologies. The Institute is committed to integrating the physical and engineering sciences with the life sciences to advance basic research and medical care. NIBIB supports emerging technology research and development within its internal laboratories and through grants, collaborations, and training. More information is available at the NIBIB website:http://www.nibib.nih.gov.

Source :NIH