Tag Archives: chandra

Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/INAF/P.Tozzi, et al; Optical: NAOJ/Subaru and ESO/VLT; Infrared: ESA/Herschel

NASA’s Chandra Weighs Most Massive Galaxy Cluster in Distant Universe

Using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers have made the first determination of the mass and other properties of a very young, distant galaxy cluster.

The Chandra study shows that the galaxy cluster, seen at the comparatively young age of about 800 million years, is the most massive known cluster with that age or younger. As the largest gravitationally- bound structures known, galaxy clusters can act as crucial gauges for how the Universe itself has evolved over time.

The galaxy cluster was originally discovered using ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory and is located about 9.6 billion light years from Earth. Astronomers used X-ray data from Chandra that, when combined with scientific models, provides an accurate weight of the cluster, which comes in at a whopping 400 trillion times the mass of the Sun. Scientists believe the cluster formed about 3.3 billion years after the Big Bang.

Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/INAF/P.Tozzi, et al; Optical: NAOJ/Subaru and ESO/VLT; Infrared: ESA/Herschel
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/INAF/P.Tozzi, et al; Optical: NAOJ/Subaru and ESO/VLT; Infrared: ESA/Herschel

The cluster is officially named XDCP J0044.0-2033, but the researchers have nicknamed it “Gioiello”, which is Italian for “jewel”. They chose this name because an image of the cluster contains many sparkling colors from the hot, X-ray emitting gas and various star-forming galaxies within the cluster. Also, the research team met to discuss the Chandra data for the first time at Villa il Gioiello, a 15th century villa near the Observatory of Arcetri, which was the last residence of prominent Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei.

“Finding this enormous galaxy cluster at this early epoch means that there could be more out there,” said Paolo Tozzi of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) in Florence, Italy, who led the new study. “This kind of information could have an impact on our understanding of how the large scale structure of the Universe formed and evolved.”

Previously, astronomers had found an enormous galaxy cluster, known as “El Gordo,” at a distance of 7 billion light years away and a few other large, distant clusters. According to the best current model for how the Universe evolved, there is a low chance of finding clusters as massive as the Gioiello Cluster and El Gordo. The new findings suggest that there might be problems with the theory, and are enticing astronomers to look for other distant and massive clusters.

“The hint that there might be problems with the standard model of cosmology is interesting,” said co-author James Jee of the University of California in Davis, “but we need bigger and deeper samples of clusters before we can tell if there’s a real problem.”

The Chandra observation of the Gioiello Cluster lasted over 4 days and is the deepest X-ray observation yet made on a cluster beyond a distance of about 8 billion light years.

“Unlike the galaxy clusters that are close to us, this cluster still has lots of stars forming within its galaxies,” said co-author Joana Santos, also from INAF in Florence. “This gives us a unique window into what galaxy clusters are like when they are very young.”


In the past, astronomers have reported finding several galaxy cluster candidates that are located more than 9.5 billion light years away. However, some of these objects turned out to be protoclusters, that is, precursors to fully developed galaxy clusters.

The researchers also note that there are hints of uneven structure in the hot gas. These may be large clumps that could have been caused by collisions and mergers with smaller clusters of galaxies and provides clues to how the cluster became so hefty at its early age. The authors expect that the cluster is still young enough to be undergoing many such interactions.

A paper describing these results will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal and is available online. NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass., controls Chandra’s science and flight operations.

An interactive image, a podcast, and a video about these findings are available at:

For Chandra images, multimedia and related materials, visit:


Source: Chandra X-Ray Observatory


The Party’s Over for These Youthful Compact Galaxies

Researchers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory have uncovered young, massive, compact galaxies whose raucous star-making parties are ending early. The firestorm of star birth has blasted out most of the remaining gaseous fuel needed to make future generations of stars. Now the party’s over for these gas-starved galaxies, and they are on track to possibly becoming so-called “red and dead galaxies,” composed only of aging stars.

Astronomers have debated for decades how massive galaxies rapidly evolve from active star-forming machines to star-starved graveyards. Previous observations of these galaxies reveal geysers of gas shooting into space at up to 2 million miles an hour. Astronomers have suspected that powerful monster black holes lurking at the centers of the galaxies triggered the gaseous outflows and shut down star birth by blowing out any remaining fuel.

Now an analysis of 12 merging galaxies at the end of their star-birthing frenzy is showing that the stars themselves are turning out the lights on their own star-making party. This happened when the universe was half its current age of 13.7 billion years.

“Before our study, the common belief was that stars cannot drive high-velocity outflows in galaxies; only more powerful supermassive black holes can do that,” explained Paul Sell of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, lead author of a science paper describing the study’s results. “Through our analysis we found that if you have a compact enough starburst, which Hubble showed was the case with these galaxies, you can actually produce the velocities of the outflows we observed from the stars alone without needing to invoke the black hole.”

Team member Christy Tremonti of the University of Wisconsin-Madison first identified the galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as post-starburst objects spouting high-speed gaseous fountains. The sharp visible-light views from Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 show that the outflows are arising from the most compact galaxies yet found. These galaxies contain as much mass as our Milky Way galaxy, but packed into a much smaller area. The smallest galaxies are about 650 light-years across.

In such small regions of space, these galaxies are forming a few hundred suns a year. (By comparison, the Milky Way makes only about one sun a year.) This makes for a rowdy party that wears itself out quickly, in only a few tens of millions of years. One reason for the stellar shutdown is that the gas rapidly heats up, becoming too hot to contract under gravity to form new stars. Another possibility is that the star-birthing frenzy blasts out most of the star-making gas via powerful stellar winds.

“The biggest surprise from Hubble was the realization that the newly formed stars were born so close together,” said team member Aleks Diamond-Stanic of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, who first suggested the possibility of starburst-driven outflows from these galaxies in a 2012 science paper. “The extreme physical conditions at the centers of these galaxies explain how they can expel gas at millions of miles per hour.”

To identify the mechanism triggering the high-velocity outflows, Sell and his team used the Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes to determine whether the galaxies’ supermassive black holes (weighing up to a billion suns) were the powerhouses driving them. After analyzing all of the observations, the team concluded that the black holes were not the source of the outflows. Rather, it was the powerful stellar winds from the most massive and short-lived stars at the end of their lives, combined with their explosive deaths as supernovae.


Based on their analysis of the Hubble and Chandra data, team members suggest that the “party begins” when two gas-rich galaxies collide, funneling a torrent of cold gas into the merging galaxies’ compact center. The large amount of gas compressed into the small space ignites the birth of numerous stars. The energy from the stellar firestorm then blows out the leftover gas, quenching further star formation.

“If you stop the flow of cold gas to form stars, that’s it,” explained Sell, who conducted the research while a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “The stars stop forming, and the galaxy rapidly evolves and may eventually become a red, dead elliptical galaxy. These extreme starbursts are quite rare, however, so they may not grow into the typical giant elliptical galaxies seen in our nearby galactic neighborhood. They may, instead, be more compact.”

The team’s results were published in the July 11 edition of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Source: Hubble Site

Credit: NASA/CXC/Univ. of Wisconsin/Y.Bai. et al.

NASA X-ray Telescopes Find Black Hole May Be a Neutrino Factory

The giant black hole at the center of the Milky Way may be producing mysterious particles called neutrinos. If confirmed, this would be the first time that scientists have traced neutrinos back to a black hole.

The evidence for this came from three NASA satellites that observe in X-ray light: the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Swift gamma-ray mission, and the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR).

Neutrinos are tiny particles that carry no charge and interact very weakly with electrons and protons. Unlike light or charged particles, neutrinos can emerge from deep within their cosmic sources and travel across the universe without being absorbed by intervening matter or, in the case of charged particles, deflected by magnetic fields.

The Earth is constantly bombarded with neutrinos from the sun. However, neutrinos from beyond the solar system can be millions or billions of times more energetic. Scientists have long been searching for the origin of ultra-high energy and very high-energy neutrinos.

“Figuring out where high-energy neutrinos come from is one of the biggest problems in astrophysics today,” said Yang Bai of the University of Wisconsin in Madison, who co-authored a study about these results published in Physical Review D. “We now have the first evidence that an astronomical source – the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole – may be producing these very energetic neutrinos.”

Because neutrinos pass through material very easily, it is extremely difficult to build detectors that reveal exactly where the neutrino came from. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, located under the South Pole, has detected 36 high-energy neutrinos since the facility became operational in 2010.

By pairing IceCube’s capabilities with the data from the three X-ray telescopes, scientists were able to look for violent events in space that corresponded with the arrival of a high-energy neutrino here on Earth.

Credit: NASA/CXC/Univ. of Wisconsin/Y.Bai. et al.
Credit: NASA/CXC/Univ. of Wisconsin/Y.Bai. et al.

“We checked to see what happened after Chandra witnessed the biggest outburst ever detected from Sagittarius A*, the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole,” said co-author Andrea Peterson, also of the University of Wisconsin. “And less than three hours later, there was a neutrino detection at IceCube.”

In addition, several neutrino detections appeared within a few days of flares from the supermassive black hole that were observed with Swift and NuSTAR.

“It would be a very big deal if we find out that Sagittarius A* produces neutrinos,” said co-author Amy Barger of the University of Wisconsin. “It’s a very promising lead for scientists to follow.”

Scientists think that the highest energy neutrinos were created in the most powerful events in the Universe like galaxy mergers, material falling onto supermassive black holes, and the winds around dense rotating stars called pulsars.
The team of researchers is still trying to develop a case for how Sagittarius A* might produce neutrinos. One idea is that it could happen when particles around the black hole are accelerated by a shock wave, like a sonic boom, that produces charged particles that decay to neutrinos.

This latest result may also contribute to the understanding of another major puzzle in astrophysics: the source of high-energy cosmic rays. Since the charged particles that make up cosmic rays are deflected by magnetic fields in our Galaxy, scientists have been unable to pinpoint their origin. The charged particles accelerated by a shock wave near Sgr A* may be a significant source of very energetic cosmic rays.

The paper describing these results is available online. NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra’s science and flight operations.

An interactive image, a podcast, and a video about these findings are available at:


For Chandra images, multimedia and related materials, visit:


Source: Chandra Harvard