Tag Archives: Psychology

New research shows how to make effective political arguments, Stanford sociologist says

Stanford sociologist Robb Willer finds that an effective way to persuade people in politics is to reframe arguments to appeal to the moral values of those holding opposing positions.

BY CLIFTON B. PARKER


In today’s American politics, it might seem impossible to craft effective political messages that reach across the aisle on hot-button issues like same-sex marriage, national health insurance and military spending. But, based on new research by Stanford sociologist Robb Willer, there’s a way to craft messages that could lead to politicians finding common ground.

“We found the most effective arguments are ones in which you find a new way to connect a political position to your target audience’s moral values,” Willer said.

While most people’s natural inclination is to make political arguments grounded in their own moral values, Willer said, these arguments are less persuasive than “reframed” moral arguments.

To be persuasive, reframe political arguments to appeal to the moral values of those holding the opposing political positions, said Matthew Feinberg, assistant professor of organizational behavior at the University of Toronto, who co-authored the study with Willer. Their work was published recently online in the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Such reframed moral appeals are persuasive because they increase the apparent agreement between a political position and the target audience’s moral values, according to the research, Feinberg said.

In fact, Willer pointed out, the research shows a “potential effective path for building popular support in our highly polarized political world.” Creating bipartisan success on legislative issues – whether in Congress or in state legislatures – requires such a sophisticated approach to building coalitions among groups not always in agreement with each other, he added.

Different moral values

Feinberg and Willer drew upon past research showing that American liberals and conservatives tend to endorse different moral values to different extents. For example, liberals tend to be more concerned with care and equality where conservatives are more concerned with values like group loyalty, respect for authority and purity.

They then conducted four studies testing the idea that moral arguments reframed to fit a target audience’s moral values could be persuasive on even deeply entrenched political issues. In one study, conservative participants recruited via the Internet were presented with passages that supported legalizing same-sex marriage.

Conservative participants were ultimately persuaded by a patriotism-based argument that “same-sex couples are proud and patriotic Americans … [who] contribute to the American economy and society.”

On the other hand, they were significantly less persuaded by a passage that argued for legalized same-sex marriage in terms of fairness and equality.

Feinberg and Willer found similar results for studies targeting conservatives with a pro-national health insurance message and liberals with arguments for high levels of military spending and making English the official language of the United States. In all cases, messages were significantly more persuasive when they fit the values endorsed more by the target audience.

“Morality can be a source of political division, a barrier to building bi-partisan support for policies,” Willer said. “But it can also be a bridge if you can connect your position to your audience’s deeply held moral convictions.”

Values and framing messages

“Moral reframing is not intuitive to people,” Willer said. “When asked to make moral political arguments, people tend to make the ones they believe in and not that of an opposing audience – but the research finds this type of argument unpersuasive.”

To test this, the researchers conducted two additional studies examining the moral arguments people typically make. They asked a panel of self-reported liberals to make arguments that would convince a conservative to support same-sex marriage, and a panel of conservatives to convince liberals to support English being the official language of the United States.

They found that, in both studies, most participants crafted messages with significant moral content, and most of that moral content reflected their own moral values, precisely the sort of arguments their other studies showed were ineffective.

“Our natural tendency is to make political arguments in terms of our own morality,” Feinberg said. “But the most effective arguments are based on the values of whomever you are trying to persuade.”

In all, Willer and Feinberg conducted six online studies involving 1,322 participants.

Source: Stanford News 

The rise and fall of cognitive skills:Neuroscientists find that different parts of the brain work best at different ages.

By Anne Trafton


CAMBRIDGE, Mass–Scientists have long known that our ability to think quickly and recall information, also known as fluid intelligence, peaks around age 20 and then begins a slow decline. However, more recent findings, including a new study from neuroscientists at MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), suggest that the real picture is much more complex.

The study, which appears in the XX issue of the journal Psychological Science, finds that different components of fluid intelligence peak at different ages, some as late as age 40.

“At any given age, you’re getting better at some things, you’re getting worse at some other things, and you’re at a plateau at some other things. There’s probably not one age at which you’re peak on most things, much less all of them,” says Joshua Hartshorne, a postdoc in MIT’s Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and one of the paper’s authors.

“It paints a different picture of the way we change over the lifespan than psychology and neuroscience have traditionally painted,” adds Laura Germine, a postdoc in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental genetics at MGH and the paper’s other author.

Measuring peaks

Until now, it has been difficult to study how cognitive skills change over time because of the challenge of getting large numbers of people older than college students and younger than 65 to come to a psychology laboratory to participate in experiments. Hartshorne and Germine were able to take a broader look at aging and cognition because they have been running large-scale experiments on the Internet, where people of any age can become research subjects.

Their web sites, gameswithwords.org and testmybrain.org, feature cognitive tests designed to be completed in just a few minutes. Through these sites, the researchers have accumulated data from nearly 3 million people in the past several years.

In 2011, Germine published a study showing that the ability to recognize faces improves until the early 30s before gradually starting to decline. This finding did not fit into the theory that fluid intelligence peaks in late adolescence. Around the same time, Hartshorne found that subjects’ performance on a visual short-term memory task also peaked in the early 30s.

Intrigued by these results, the researchers, then graduate students at Harvard University, decided that they needed to explore a different source of data, in case some aspect of collecting data on the Internet was skewing the results. They dug out sets of data, collected decades ago, on adult performance at different ages on the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale, which is used to measure IQ, and the Weschler Memory Scale. Together, these tests measure about 30 different subsets of intelligence, such as digit memorization, visual search, and assembling puzzles.

Hartshorne and Germine developed a new way to analyze the data that allowed them to compare the age peaks for each task. “We were mapping when these cognitive abilities were peaking, and we saw there was no single peak for all abilities. The peaks were all over the place,” Hartshorne says. “This was the smoking gun.”

However, the dataset was not as large as the researchers would have liked, so they decided to test several of the same cognitive skills with their larger pools of Internet study participants. For the Internet study, the researchers chose four tasks that peaked at different ages, based on the data from the Weschler tests. They also included a test of the ability to perceive others’ emotional state, which is not measured by the Weschler tests.

The researchers gathered data from nearly 50,000 subjects and found a very clear picture showing that each cognitive skill they were testing peaked at a different age. For example, raw speed in processing information appears to peak around age 18 or 19, then immediately starts to decline. Meanwhile, short-term memory continues to improve until around age 25, when it levels off and then begins to drop around age 35.

For the ability to evaluate other people’s emotional states, the peak occurred much later, in the 40s or 50s.

More work will be needed to reveal why each of these skills peaks at different times, the researchers say. However, previous studies have hinted that genetic changes or changes in brain structure may play a role.

“If you go into the data on gene expression or brain structure at different ages, you see these lifespan patterns that we don’t know what to make of. The brain seems to continue to change in dynamic ways through early adulthood and middle age,” Germine says. “The question is: What does it mean? How does it map onto the way you function in the world, or the way you think, or the way you change as you age?”

Accumulated intelligence

The researchers also included a vocabulary test, which serves as a measure of what is known as crystallized intelligence — the accumulation of facts and knowledge. These results confirmed that crystallized intelligence peaks later in life, as previously believed, but the researchers also found something unexpected: While data from the Weschler IQ tests suggested that vocabulary peaks in the late 40s, the new data showed a later peak, in the late 60s or early 70s.

The researchers believe this may be a result of better education, more people having jobs that require a lot of reading, and more opportunities for intellectual stimulation for older people.

Hartshorne and Germine are now gathering more data from their websites and have added new cognitive tasks designed to evaluate social and emotional intelligence, language skills, and executive function. They are also working on making their data public so that other researchers can access it and perform other types of studies and analyses.

“We took the existing theories that were out there and showed that they’re all wrong. The question now is: What is the right one? To get to that answer, we’re going to need to run a lot more studies and collect a lot more data,” Hartshorne says.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

Source: MIT News Office

Electrical and computer engineering Professor Barry Van Veen wears an electrode net used to monitor brain activity via EEG signals. His research could help untangle what happens in the brain during sleep and dreaming.

Photo Credit: Nick Berard/UW-Madison

Stanford scientists seek to map origins of mental illness and develop noninvasive treatment

An interdisciplinary team of scientists has convened to map the origins of mental illnesses in the brain and develop noninvasive technologies to treat the conditions. The collaboration could lead to improved treatments for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder.

BY AMY ADAMS


Over the years imaging technologies have revealed a lot about what’s happening in our brains, including which parts are active in people with conditions like depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder. But here’s the secret Amit Etkin wants the world to know about those tantalizing images: they show the result of a brain state, not what caused it.

This is important because until we know how groups of neurons, called circuits, are causing these conditions – not just which are active later – scientists will never be able to treat them in a targeted way.

“You see things activated in brain images but you can’t tell just by watching what is cause and what is effect,” said Amit Etkin, an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. Etkin is co-leader of a new interdisciplinary initiative to understand what brain circuits underlie mental health conditions and then direct noninvasive treatments to those locations.

“Right now, if a patient with a mental illness goes to see their doctor they would likely be given a medication that goes all over the brain and body,” Etkin said. “While medications can work well, they do so for only a portion of people and often only partially.” Medications don’t specifically act on the brain circuits critically affected in that illness or individual.

The Big Idea: treat roots of mental illness

The new initiative, called NeuroCircuit, has the goal of finding the brain circuits that are responsible for mental health conditions and then developing ways of remotely stimulating those circuits and, the team hopes, potentially treating those conditions.

The initiative is part of the Stanford Neurosciences Institute‘s Big Ideas, which bring together teams of researchers from across disciplines to solve major problems in neuroscience and society. Stephen Baccus, an associate professor of neurobiology who co-leads the initiative with Etkin, said that what makes NeuroCircuit a big idea is the merging of teams trying to map circuits responsible for mental health conditions and teams developing new technologies to remotely access those circuits.

“Many psychiatric disorders, especially disorders of mood, probably involve malfunction within specific brain circuits that regulate emotion and motivation, yet our current pharmaceutical treatments affect circuits all over the brain,” said William Newsome, director of the Stanford Neurosciences Institute. “The ultimate goal of NeuroCircuit is more precise treatments, with minimal side effects, for specific psychiatric disorders.”

“The connection between the people who develop the technology and carry out research with the clinical goal, that’s what’s really come out of the Big Ideas,” Baccus said.

Brain control

Etkin has been working with a technology called transcranial magnetic stimulation, or TMS, to map and remotely stimulate parts of the brain. The device, which looks like a pair of doughnuts on a stick, generates a strong magnetic current that stimulates circuits near the surface of the brain.

TMS is currently used as a way of treating depression and anxiety, but Etkin said the brain regions being targeted are the ones available to TMS, not necessarily the ones most likely to treat a person’s condition. They are also not personalized for the individual.

Pairing TMS with another technology that shows which brain regions are active, Etkin and his team can stimulate one part of the brain with TMS and look for a reaction elsewhere. These studies can eventually help map the relationships between brain circuits and identify the circuits that underlie mental health conditions.

In parallel, the team is working to improve TMS to make it more useful as a therapy. TMS currently only reaches the surface of the brain and is not very focused. The goal is to improve the technology so that it can reach structures deeper in the brain in a more targeted way. “Right now they are hitting the only accessible target,” he said. “The parts we really want to hit for depression, anxiety or PTSD are likely deeper in the brain.”

Technology of the future

In parallel with the TMS work, Baccus and a team of engineers, radiologists and physiologists have been developing a way of using ultrasound to stimulate the brain. Ultrasound is widely used to image the body, most famously for producing images of developing babies in the womb. But in recent years scientists have learned that at the right frequency and focus, ultrasound can also stimulate nerves to fire.

In his lab, Baccus has been using ultrasound to stimulate nerve cells of the retina – the light-sensing structure at the back of the eye – as part of an effort to develop a prosthetic retina. He is also teaming up with colleagues to understand how ultrasound might be triggering that stimulation. It appears to compress the nerve cells in a way that could lead to activation, but the connection is far from clear.

Other members of the team are modifying existing ultrasound technology to direct it deep within the brain at a frequency that can stimulate nerves without harming them. If the team is successful, ultrasound could be a more targeted and focused tool than TMS for remotely stimulating circuits that underlie mental health conditions.

The group has been working together for about five years, and in 2012 got funding from Bio-X NeuroVentures, which eventually gave rise to the Stanford Neurosciences Institute, to pursue this technology. Baccus said that before merging with Etkin’s team they had been focusing on the technology without specific brain diseases in mind. “This merger really gives a target and a focus to the technology,” he said.

Etkin and Baccus said that if they are successful, they hope to have both a better understanding of how the brain functions and new tools for treating disabling mental health conditions.

Source: Stanford News

How to build a proactive workforce

Building a proactive workforce is every manager’s dream as it can boost a company’s performance, but a new study has found if job satisfaction is low those ‘agents of change’ quickly lose that can-do attitude.

Researchers followed 75 workers for two years, measuring their job satisfaction levels and how proactive they were.

They found that those with high levels of job satisfaction remained proactive two years later, but those with low levels tailed off in terms of proactivity. Interestingly there was a group who had high job satisfaction but did not promote change in their organisation and still didn’t two years later.

The study by Karoline Strauss, of Warwick Business School, Mark Griffin and Sharon Parker, of University of Western Australia, and Claire Mason, of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, also looked at how adaptive workers were and discovered that the easier they adapted to change the more likely they would remain proactive over the long term.

“Proactivity is important for innovation and implementing organisational change,” said Dr Strauss, who is part of the Organisation & Human Resources Management Group at Warwick Business School.

“So it is important to sustain a proactive workforce and we have found that job satisfaction is important, not just as an instigator of proactivity, but as a force for maintaining momentum.

“There has been research showing that job satisfaction leads to a more compliant workforce, and we did find that highly satisfied employees who had not tried to promote change at work were unlikely to do so in the future. But we also found that those with high levels of job satisfaction who were proactive maintained that over two years.

“Low levels of job satisfaction may motivate high levels of proactive behaviour in the short term as workers looked to change things to become more satisfied, but this is not sustained over the long term. Our findings suggest that these workers will either succeed in changing their environment at work and so no longer see the need to seek change, or fail, become frustrated and not persevere with their proactive behaviour.”

Management research has found that effective change in an organisation requires proactivity among the workforce to be maintained over a long period. As well as job satisfaction the study on an Australian healthcare organisation, entitled Building and sustaining proactive behaviors: the role of adaptivity and job satsifaction and published in the Journal of Business and Psychology, discovered adaptability was also an important factor.

“If employees do not adapt to change, they are consequently unlikely to support proactivity,” said Dr Strauss. “This research found a significant positive link between a worker’s adaptivity and proactivity.

“Those who fail to adapt to change seem to be less likely to initiate change in the future as they may see change as threatening and may lose confidence in their own ability to be proactive. Irrespective of their past proactivity we found that employees’ proactivity may decrease if they fail to adapt to change and that may impact on a company’s performance and profitability.”

Dr Karoline Strauss also teaches Organisational Behaviour on the Warwick MBA by full-time studyWarwick Executive MBAWarwick MBA by distance learning and Global Energy MBA. She also teaches Management, Organisation and Society on Warwick Business School’s Undergraduate courses.

Source: Warwick Business School